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Showing 11 results for Eskandari

Hamid Reza Momeni, Najmeh Eskandari,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: Arsenic as an environmental toxicant is able to exert malformations in male reproductive system by inducing oxidative stress. Vitamin E (Vit.E) is known as antioxidant vitamin.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effects of sodium arsenite on sperm parameters and the antioxidant effects of Vit.E on sperm anomalies in sodium arsenite treated rats.
Materials and Methods: Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups: control, sodium arsenite (8 mg/kg/day), Vit.E (100 mg/kg/day) and sodium arsenite+Vit.E. Oral treatments were performed till 8 weeks. Body and left testis weight were recorded and then left caudal epididymis was cut in Hamchr('39')s F10. Released spermatozoa were used to analyze number, motility, viability and abnormalities of the sperm. Sperm chromatin quality was assessed by nuclear staining using acridine orange and aniline blue.
Results: Body and testis weight showed no significant change in 4 groups (p>0.05). A significant decrease in the number, motility, viability and normal sperm morphology was found in sodium arsenite-treated rats compared to the control (p<0.001). Sodium arsenite had no effect on sperm DNA integrity and histon-protamine replacement (p>0.05). In sodium arsenite+Vit.E group, Vit.E could significantly compensate the harmful effects of sodium arsenite on sperm number, motility, viability and morphology compared to sodium arsenite group. In addition, sperm viability and motility was significantly increased in rats treated with Vit.E alone compared to the control and sodium arsenite+Vit.E group.
Conclusion: Vitamin E could compensate the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on sperm parameters in adult rats.

Fakhrolmolouk Yassaee, Roghieh Eskandari, Zohreh Amiri,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a disease that commonly affects women of reproductive age and is associated with maternal and fetal complications.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to report the perinatal outcome in pregnant women with ITP. Materials and Methods: Twenty one pregnant women with ITP admitted in a teaching hospital in Tehran, from October 2008 to February 2010, were enrolled in this prospective historical cohort study; course and perinatal outcome of pregnancies were studied.
Results: Seven (33.3%) cases had been diagnosed before pregnancy, while the other fourteen (66.7%) were diagnosed during pregnancy. During hospitalization, thirteen (62%) patients required treatment, eight (61.5%) of them with steroids, two (15.3%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and three (23%) were treated with steroids and IVIG. Three babies were delivered vaginally (14.3%), seventeen (81%) through cesarean section and one patient aborted her fetus. Nine mothers (42.9%) had platelet counts &lt;50000/ml at the time of delivery; but postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 4 (19%) women and one women received platelet transfusion during cesarean section. Six (28.6%) women developed gestational diabetes. Pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia in one woman and by abruptio placenta in another. One pregnancy terminated in intrauterine fetal death. Seventeen infants (89.5%) had normal platelet counts, and two (10.5%) had moderate thrombocytopenia. No infant showed signs of hemorrhage, but 2 neonates (10.5%) were diagnosed with intrauterine growth restriction.
Conclusion: Rate of gestational diabetes in pregnant women with ITP is higher than the general population. Rate of gestinational diabetes is 3-5% and postpartum hemorrhage is 5-7% in general. Postpartum hemorrhage is common in these women. Severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding in the newborns are uncommon.
Sara Masihi, Mojgan Barati, Javad Marfu, Zahra Eskandari,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)

Background: Central nervous system malformations are the second most common congenital malformations after congenital heart diseases. These malformations are associated with many instances of morbidity and mortality which underline the importance of prevention and their early diagnosis. Objective: The objective of this study is the diagnosis of neural tube defect (NTDs) in the first trimester and its comparison to second trimester diagnoses in order to reduce the complications associated with late pregnancy terminations and its costs.
Materials and Methods: This study was a trans-sectional study. A total number of 1074 patients who referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital were enrolled in this study. During the 11th-13th (+6 days) gestational week the patients were screened sonographically; subsequently they were re-scanned for fetal anomalies during 18th-20th gestational week, and we followed the babies after birth. Considering that Intracranial Translucency (IT) was introduced in the newer researches, it was, too, measured in 125 of the cases.
Results: In a total number of 1074 patients we had one patient with an anencephalous fetus whom was diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the second trimester, we detected one case of myelomenigocele; when we referred to this patient’s first trimester sonography, there was no visible IT. In the 125 cases in whom the IT length was measured, it was normal; the 2nd trimester sonographies in these patients were also normal.
Conclusion: It must be noted that the diagnosis of NTD is more accurate in the second trimester of pregnancy. Consequently it is recommended that in high risk patients, the second trimester sonography be performed transvaginally, and in an earlier gestational age (14th-16th gestational weeks).
Hoda Ahmari Tehran, Shohreh Tashi, Nahid Mehran, Narges Eskandari, Tahmineh Dadkhah Tehrani,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (8-2014)

Background: Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires counseling and assessment prior to acceptance by infertile couples and complete surrogate mothers.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional experiences of surrogate mothers.
Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative, phenomenological study. We selected eight complete surrogate mothers in Isfahan. We used convenient sampling method and in-depth interview to collect the information. The data analysis was fulfilled via Colaizzi’s seven-stage method. Reliability and validity study of the roots in the four-axis was done.
Results: The findings of these interviews were classified into two main themes and four sub themes: acquired experiences in pregnancy (feelings toward pregnancy, relationship with family, relatives and commissioning couple) and consequences of surrogacy (complications of pregnancy, religious and financial problems of surrogacy).
Conclusion: Surrogacy pregnancy should be considered as high-risk emotional experience because many of surrogate mothers may face negative experiences. Therefore, it is recommended that surrogates should receive professional counseling prior to, during and following pregnancy.
Farzaneh Eskandari, Hamid Reza Momeni,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (1-2016)

Background: Exposure to arsenic is associated with impairment of male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress. Silymarin with an antioxidant property scavenges free radicals.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if silymarin can prevent the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on ram sperm plasma membrane and acrosome integrity.
Materials and Methods: Ram epidydimal spermatozoa were divided into five groups: spermatozoa at 0 hr, spermatozoa at 180 min (control), spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) + sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min, spermatozoa treated with sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min and spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) for 180 min. Double staining of Hoechst and propidium iodide was performed to evaluate sperm plasma membrane integrity, whereas comassie brilliant blue staining was used to assess acrosome integrity.
Results: Plasma membrane (p< 0.001) and acrosome integrity (p< 0.05) of the spermatozoa were significantly reduced in sodium arsenite group compared to the control. In silymarin + sodium arsenite group, silymarin was able to significantly (p< 0.001) ameliorate the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on these sperm parameters compared to sodium arsenite group. The incubation of sperm for 180 min (control group) showed a significant (p< 0.001) decrease in acrosome integrity compared to the spermatozoa at 0 hour. The application of silymarin alone for 180 min could also significantly (p< 0.05) increase sperm acrosome integrity compared to the control.
Conclusion: Silymarin as a potent antioxidant could compensate the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on the ram sperm plasma membrane and acrosome integrity.
Farzaneh Eskandari, Hamid Reza Momeni,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (6-2016)

Background: Sodium arsenite can impair male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress. Silymarin is known as a potent antioxidant.
Objective: This study was performed to investigate if silymarin can prevent the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on ram sperm viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential.
Materials and Methods: Epidydimal spermatozoa obtained from ram were divided into five groups: 1) Spermatozoa at 0 hr, 2) spermatozoa at 180 min (control), 3) spermatozoa treated with sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min, 4) spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) + sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min and 5) spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) for 180 min. MTT assay and Rhodamine 123 staining were used to assess sperm viability and mitochondrial membrane potential respectively. Sperm motility was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines.
Results: Viability (p<0.01), nonprogressive motility (p<0.001) and intact mitochondrial membrane potential (p<0.001) of the spermatozoa were significantly decreased in sodium arsenite treated group compared to control group. In silymarin + sodium arsenite group, silymarin could significantly reverse the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on these sperm parameters compared to sodium arsenite group (p<0.001). In addition, the application of silymarin alone for 180 minutes could significantly increase progressively motile sperm (p<0.001) and decrease non motile sperm (p<0.01) compared to the control.
Conclusion: Silymarin could compensate the adverse effect of sodium arsenite on viability, nonprogressive motility and mitochondrial membrane potential of ram sperm.
Zahra Eskandari, Rajab-Ali Sadrkhanlou, Vahid Nejati, Gholamreza Tizro,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (8-2016)

Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development.
Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels.
Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval.
Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels.
Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01).
Azadeh Yousefnezhad, Azar Pirdehghan, Mahboubeh Roshandel Rad, Aemeh Eskandari, Shahnaz Ahmadi,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (January 2018)

Background: Various treatments have been proposed to treat ectopic pregnancy, but their impact on future pregnancies is still the subject of controversy.
Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the medical and surgical treatment methods and their impact on the subsequent fertility results and complications in women with a history of ectopic pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: In this analytical, cross-sectional study, 370 women with the history of ectopic pregnancy, (treared with single dose of methotrexate or salpingectomy by laparotomy), that referred to Al-Zahra Hospital, Rasht, Guilan between 2009 to 2013 were enrolled. 147 women responded to the phone call. The age, the number of women that needed to drug for pregnancy, fertility rate and the fertility outcomes were studied.
Result: 147 women responded to the call and between them, 114 women tried to get pregnant again after the ectopic pregnancy treatment. They were agreed to the participate in the study. The mean age of the patients was 28.56±5.63 yr. The fertility rates in the medical and the surgical groups were 56.6% and 47.61%, respectively (p=0.141). There were no significant differences in the poor consequences of pregnancy among the two groups; ectopic pregnancy (p=0.605), miscarriage (p=0.605), and prematuredelivery (p=0.648). 15.1% in the medicinal group and two patients 12.5% in the surgical group had received fertility treatment in order to get pregnant (p=0.135). There was no significant difference in two groups.
Conclusion: It seems that surgical treatment depending on the underlying variables of each patient, can be used such as medical treatment, without worrying about its effect on fertility.
Abbas Bakhteyari, Yasaman Zarrin, Parvaneh Nikpour, Zeinab Sadat Hosseiny, Fatemah Sadat Mostafavi, Nahid Eskandari, Mohammad Matinfar, Roshanak Aboutorabi,
Volume 17, Issue 6 (June 2019 2019)

Background: Diabetes mellitus deeply changes the genes expression of integrin (Itg) subunits in several cells and tissues such as monocytes, arterial endothelium, kidney glomerular cells, retina. Furthermore, hyperglycemia could impress and reduce the rate of successful assisted as well as non-assisted pregnancy. Endometrium undergoes thorough changes in normal menstrual cycle and the question is: What happens in the endometrium under diabetic condition?
Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the endometrial gene expression of α3, α4, αv, Itg β1 and β3 subunits in diabetic rat models at the time of embryo implantation.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, diabetic group, pioglitazone-treated group, and metformin-treated group. Realtime PCR was performed to determine changes in the expression of Itg α3, α4, αv, β1, and β3 genes in rat’s endometrium.
Results: The expression of all Itg subunits increased significantly in diabetic rats’ endometrium compared with control group. Treatment with pioglitazone significantly reduced the level of Itg subunits gene expression compared with diabetic rats. While metformin had a different effect on α3 and α4 and elevated these two subunits gene expression.
Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus significantly increased the expression of studied Itg subunits, therefore untreated diabetes could be potentially assumed as one of the preliminary elements in embryo implantation failure.
Ronak Zarei, Roshanak Aboutorabi, Bahman Rashidi, Nahid Eskandari, Parvaneh Nikpour,
Volume 18, Issue 9 (September 2020)

Background: Implantation requires intimate crosstalk between the embryo and uterus for a successful establishment of pregnancy. Type 2 diabetes mellitus may lead to implantation failure. The effect of diabetes and its therapeutic drugs on implantation is still largely unclear.
Objective: To assess the endometrial expression changes of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), at the time of implantation in diabetic rats following treatment with Metformin and Pioglitazone.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight 6-8-wk-old Wistar female rats weighing 200-250 gr were divided into four groups (n= 7/each). Type 2 diabetes was induced and Metformin and Pioglitazone were applied for 4 wk. The expression of VEGFA and LIF was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.
Results: The relative expression of VEGFA transcript was higher in the diabetic (p = 0.02) and Metformin-treated (p = 0.04) rats compared to the control group. Furthermore, the VEGFA transcript level significantly reduced in Pioglitazone-treated diabetic rats (p = 0.03). LIF expression was elevated in the Metformin- and the Pioglitazone-treated rats and reduced in the diabetic group in comparison with the control group. Compared to the diabetic rats, the expression of LIF was significantly elevated in the Metformin- (p = 0.01) and Pioglitazone-treated (p = 0.03) groups.
Conclusion: The expressions of LIF and VEGFA were altered in diabetic rats during implantation which may be associated with diabetic-related infertility. Pioglitazone is able to restore the VEGFA and LIF expressions to their baseline levels more efficiently than Metformin.
Hamid Reza Momeni, Mohammad Hussein Abnosi, Najmeh Eskandari,
Volume 18, Issue 11 (November 2020)

Background: 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which evaluates cellular mitochondrial activity is widely used for the assessment of cell proliferation and viability.
Objective: This study was performed to assess human sperm viability using MTT assay.
Materials and Methods: In this laboratory study, human-ejaculated semen samples (n = 56 from different donors) were used. The sperm viability was determined using quantitative MTT assay and the sperm motility was assessed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Sperm viability and the correlation between sperm viability and motility were analyzed.
Results: Data revealed a marked positive correlation between MTT reduction rate and the percentage of viable spermatozoa. The Pearsonchr('39')s correlation coefficients also showed a significant correlation between sperm viability and motility.
Conclusion: MTT assay which is based on mitochondrial functionality is a reliable method for evaluating human sperm viability and could be used as a diagnostic test for predicting sperm fertilization ability in clinical settings.

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