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Showing 32 results for Eftekhar

Nahid Eftekhari,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Inversion of the uterus is very uncommon. Patients may present with pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, or hemodynamic shock. Case: We report a case of 35 years old women (virgin) who was admitted with profuse vaginal bleeding and cramps of uterus. In the vaginal examination at litothomy position a mass of 58 cm in size was protruded from the vagina. At first myomectomy was performed and after that laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy was done. Conclusion: Early diagnosis, immediate treatment of shock, and replacement are essential in uterine inversion.
Fattaneh Farifteh, Marzieh Mehrafza, Mona Oudi, Azadeh Eftekhari, Maryam Rahnavard, Khatereh Barjasteh, Ahmad Hossieni,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (7-2009)
Abstract

Background: Embryo transfer (ET) has traditionally been performed two days after oocyte retrieval. Delaying transfer from day two to day three or four would allow for further development of the embryo might therefore optimize the selection of viable and best quality embryos for transfer and may be closer to the physiological time of the entry into the uterus than transfer on day two and might have a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The study aimed to determine whether delayed transfer of embryos from 2 to 3 or 4 days after oocyte retrieval and the pregnancy rate in ICSI (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection) procedure. Materials and Methods: In this deh1ive study we evaluated infertile couples who were referred to the Mehr Infertility Institute between 2006 and 2008 for ICSI according to the day of embryo transfer. We compared embryo quality pregnancy rate and implantation rate among day 2 3 or 4 of transfers. Pregnancy rate was confirmed by measurement of ?-hCG in serum after 14 days. After data collection analysis was carried out with the t-test and chi squared tests by using the statistical software package SPSS.16. Results: The overall clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) reported was 46.6%. The mean age of women and duration of infertility didn't differ on the day of embryo transfer (p>0.05). Overall CPRs were not statistically different for day 2 (50.3%) day 3 (46.5%) and day 4 (34.8%) transfers respectively there were no significant differences in the age of transferred embryos between pregnant and nonpregnant women (p>0.05). Conclusion: From the result of the present study there were no statistically significant differences in pregnancy rates according to the day of embryo transfer.
Seyed Hassan Eftekhar Vaghefi, Nehleh Zareii Fard, Zhinoosossadat Shahidzadeh, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani,
Volume 7, Issue 5 (7-2009)
Abstract

Background: Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells conventionally isolated from early embryos. Studies have shown that ES cells serve as a practical model for biomedical studies. Objective: The aim of the present study was to optimize culture conditions for establishment of ES-like colonies from NMRI mouse blastocysts as well as 2-cell stage embryos. Materials and Methods: Both expanded blastocysts and 2-cell stage embryos were co-cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). Plating capacity and formation of Inner cell mass (ICM) were examined daily. The differentiation and growth behavior of ICM cells were examined with various procedures. ICMs derived from initially cultured 2-cell or blastocyst embryos were disaggregated either mechanically or enzymatically and seeded onto MEF with or without leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The resulted colonies were disaggregated and reseeded onto MEF and the colonies that were morphologically similar to ES cells were evaluated for pluripotency using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression as a stem cell marker. Results: No morphologically good ES-like colony was isolated from 2-cell embryos after passages while 273 (79%) good-looking ICMs were isolated from 352 blastocysts. Four sets of colonies remained undifferentiated following passages. Enzymatic method of ICM disaggregation was superior to the mechanical method. Besides all ES-like colonies were obtained from the ICMs cultured in presence of MEF and LIF. Conclusion: Our results show that NMRI mouse ICMs could be isolated and cultured from blastocyst stage embryos with a suitable culture system and ES-like cell colonies remain undifferentiated when cultured with MEF and LIF.
Fatemeh Mirzaie, Nahid Eftekhari, Sedigheh Goldozeian, Jamileh Mahdavinia,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2010)
Abstract

Background: Anemia in pregnancy is associated with increased rates of maternal and perinatal mortality. Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of women with anemia during pregnancy in Kerman Iran. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed based on 2213 pregnancies delivered during the years 2005-2007 in Kerman Iran. Women with hemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia were excluded from analysis. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin (Hg) lower than 11 g/dl during pregnancy. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Results: Overall 104 (4.7%) women were anemic (Hg Article
Abbas Aflatoonian, Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)
Abstract

Background: Human fertility has been declined all over the world. Advanced women’s age is one of the most important factors in determining the success of reproduction and ageing has negative impact on ART outcome and advanced female age decreases the chance of live birth rates achieved using ART, especially after 40 years of age. Objective: To evaluate ART outcomes regarding to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates in women 40 years and older. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on three hundred-thirteen women undergoing ART cycles in the Madar Hospital in Yazd. Women with age ? 40 years who indicated for ART enrolled the study regardless of the infertility type or etiology. In this study, we used data from IVF or ICSI cycles using fresh embryo transfer. Follow up was performed in regard to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates. Results: The mean age of women was 41.87±1.97 years. Chemical pregnancy rate was 8.6% (27/313) per cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was 3.8% (12/313) per cycle. Spontaneous abortion was observed in 63% (17/27) of patients with positive pregnancy test. The overall cancellation rate was 23.3% per oocytes retrieval. The overall live birth rate per cycle for all women who initiated an ART cycle at age ?40 years was 3.2% (10/313) that eight of those women were under 42 years old. Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that women with age 42 years and above should be advised to use other options, including oocyte donation or adoption.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad, Behnaz Molaei, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Conventional IVF and ICSI are two common techniques to achieve fertilization. IVF has long been used for treatment of infertility, although it is not an effective treatment in severe male infertility. The use of ICSI has been expanded in severe male factor and fertilization failure after IVF cycle. In spite of the widespread use of ICSI in patients with non-male factor infertility, there is still little evidence to confirm its effectiveness in this population. Objective: To evaluate assisted reproductive technology outcomes between IVF and ICSI cycles in non-male factor, normoresponder patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 220 non-male factors, normoresponder patients who were indicated for ART were enrolled in this study. The patients received standard long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist protocols for ovarian stimulation and after oocytes retrieval, the patients were divided into two groups (IVF and ICSI groups). In IVF group (n=112), all of retrieved oocytes were treated by conventional IVF and in ICSI group (n=88), microinjection (ICSI) was done on all of retrieved oocytes.
Results: In IVF group, fertilization and implantation rates were significantly higher than ICSI group (66.22% and 16.67% in IVF group versus 57.46% and 11.17% in ICSI group, respectively). Chemical and clinical pregnancy rates were statistically higher in IVF group as compared with the ICSI group (42.9% vs. 27.3% and 35.7% vs. 21.5%, respectively).
Conclusion: According to our study, the routine use of ICSI is not improved fertilization, implantation and chemical pregnancy rates and is not recommended in non-male factor, normozoospermic patients.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad, Parisa Khani, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Fertilization failure is one of the most problems in assisted reproduction technology (ART).
Objective: The aim of this study was the evaluation of oocytes activation by addition of calcium ionophore in unfertilized oocytes in ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: This study was done on 15 ICSI cycles (stimulated with standard long protocol). Mature retrieved oocytes with normal morphology that had no evidence of fertilization 24 hours after ICSI were included in the study. The oocytes with fertilization and unfertilized oocytes with degeneration were excluded from the study. The unfertilized oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and were transferred to GIVF medium that contained 5 µmol of calcium ionophore and were incubated for 10 minutes. Then again oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and consequently were transferred to GIVF medium and were incubated at 37°C in 6% CO2. After 18 hours, the oocytes were examined and activated oocytes were defined with observation of at least one pronucleus or cleaved oocytes.
Results: After ovarian stimulation and oocytes retrieval, 175 mature oocytes were obtained and injection of sperm was done for all of them. 114 of 175 oocytes (66%) showed evidence of fertilization after 24 hours. A total of 61 oocytes (34%) showed no evidence of fertilization and 10 oocytes were degenerated and were excluded from the study. Only 51 unfertilized oocytes with normal morphology were selected and were exposed to calcium ionophore. 37 (72.5%) of treated oocytes were fertilized (2PN) and 32 (62.7%) of them showed evidence of cleavage. 6 (11.8%) embryos had good quality.
Conclusion: According to our results, oocytes activation with calcium ionophore had an acceptable fertilization rate, however high quality embryos remained low. We propose future studies to evaluate embryo quality.
Maryam Eftekhar, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Hesamoddin Karimi, Elham Rahmani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)
Abstract

Background: GnRH agonist and antagonist were developed to control the premature release of LH surge. There is some difference between two protocols. Objective: We compared the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer in infertile women who used GnRH agonist or antagonist protocol for previous COH cycle and evaluation of any adverse effect of GnRH antagonist on oocyte and embryo. Materials and Methods: The study group included all infertile women who referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Overall 20-35 years old women who were candidate for frozen-thawed embryo transfer with regard to inclusion and exclusion criteria were participated in the study. The patients based on previous control ovarian stimulation (COH) protocol divided in to two groups: GnRH agonist long protocol (n=165) and GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol (n=165). Frozen-thawed embryos were transferred after endometrial preparation in both groups. Main outcome measures were: implantation, chemical and clinical pregnancy rate. Results: The implantation and clinical pregnancy rate following cryopreserved embryo transfer in GnRH agonist group and antagonist group were 16.3% vs. 15.7% (p=0.806) and 38.1% (63/165) vs. 36.9% (61/165) (p=0.915) and chemical pregnancy rate was 44.8% (74/165) vs. 43.6% (72/165) (p=0.915) respectively. Conclusion: There was no statistically difference between two groups in terms of implantation and pregnancy rate. Although pregnancy rate in fresh embryo transfer in antagonist cycles was lower than agonist groups, Therefore decrease in these parameters might be due to detrimental effect of GnRH antagonist on the endometrium, not embryo or oocyte.
Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Farnaz Mohammadian, Mehri Mashayekhy, Robab Davar, Maryam Eftekhar,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)
Abstract

Background: Determination of oocyte fertilization and embryo quality are one of the most important purposes in ART cycles. Follicular fluid provides an important microenvironment for development of oocytes and some biochemical characteristics of the follicular fluid, such as pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), may play an important role in prediction of success rate of ART. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate whether there was any difference in follicular fluid PAPP-A, fertilization, and embryo quality between GnRH agonist long protocol and flexible GnRH antagonist multiple-dose protocol in ART cycles. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women who were candidates for ART were enrolled the study and were divided into two groups, GnRH agonist (GnRHa) long protocol (n=51) and flexible GnRH antagonist (GnRHant) multiple-dose protocol (n=49). Follicular fluid sample was obtained from a single mature follicle and follicular fluid PAPP-A level, fertilization and embryo quality of the same oocyte were evaluated in both groups. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean levels of follicular fluid PAPP-A between the GnRHa protocol and GnRHant protocol (3.5±1.4 vs. 3.8±1.9, respectively). The mean levels of follicular fluid PAPP-A in fertilized oocyte and good quality embryo were comparable in GnRHa and GnRHant protocols. Conclusion: Our data indicated that no differences of follicular fluid PAPP-A levels were observed between cycles using GnRHa long protocol and those of using flexible GnRHant multiple-dose protocol.
Maryam Eftekhar, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Elham Rahmani,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)
Abstract

Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) has been used as a replacement for the mid-cycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge for several years. The recent arrival of recombinant DNA technology has made recombinant HCG (rHCG) accessible. Objective: To assess efficacy of rHCG compared to urinary HCG (uHCG) for triggering of ovulation and induction of final oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive cycles. Materials and Methods: 200 patients who were candidate for ICSI were randomly divided in two groups. In group I (rHCG), patients received 250μg of rHCG for final oocyte maturation, and in group II (uHCG) the patients received 10000 IU of uHCG. Measured outcomes were number of retrieved oocyte and mature oocyte, maturation rate of oocyte, fertilization rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Results: The rates of oocyte maturity were similar in both groups. Fertilization rate was similar in two groups (58.58% in rHCG group versus 60.58% in uHCG group p=0.666). The clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was similar in both group 34.0% in rHCG group versus 39% in uHCG group (p=0.310). Conclusion: We demonstrated that rHCG is as effective as uHCG, when it is used for final oocyte maturation in ICSI cycles. The numbers of retrieved oocyte and maturation rates were similar in both groups; also fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates were similar.
Nastaran Aflatoonian, Maryam Eftekhar, Behrooz Aflatoonian, Elham Rahmani, Abass Aflatoonian,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)
Abstract

Background: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is defined as pregnancy failure after two to six times with at least ten high grade embryo transfer to uterus. A variety of causes have been anticipated for RIF, including anatomical, autoimmune, genetics, endocrine and thrombotic anomalies. Factors responsible for RIF have important implication regarding treatment however in many couples a perfect cause cannot be found.
Cases: In these case series, we reported nine couples with RIF that after investigation no definitive etiology was found for RIF and empirical therapy by heparin, aspirin and or immunotherapy was not effective. In these cases we recommended transfer of embryos to surrogate uterus. Nine patients were studied and six of them developed a normal pregnancy (pregnancy rate=66.66%).
Conclusion: This study showed that surrogacy is a good option for treatment of RIF.
Maryam Eftekhar, Elham Rahmani, Farnaz Mohammadian,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)
Abstract

Background: Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist is used for controlling ovarian stimulation in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles which has some benefits.
Objective: To compare the efficacy of two different formulations of GnRH agonist: short-acting and long-acting, for ART protocols.
Materials and Methods: In a prospective randomized study, one hundred women who underwent ART cycles were randomly divided into two groups. In group I, the patients received one single injection of 1.87 mg Triptorelin in previous mid-luteal phase. In group II, Decapeptyl 0.1 mg per day started from previous mid-luteal phase. Pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle was compared between two groups.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the number of retrieved oocyte (p=0.545), fertilization (p=0.876), implantation (p=0.716) and pregnancy rate (p=0.727) between the two groups.
Conclusion: There were not any advantages in IVF outcome between half-dose long-acting and short-acting GnRH agonist groups in ART cycle.
Masoumeh Rajabpour-Niknam, Mehdi Totonchi, Maryam Shahhosseini, Ali Farrokhi, Hiva Alipour, Poopak Eftekhari-Yazdi,
Volume 11, Issue 9 (12-2013)
Abstract

Background: Embryo cryopreservation is the process that water is removed from the cell by cryoprotectant materials, and embryos are stored at temperature below zero. This process may affect the viability and developmental potential of embryos.
Objective: In this study, the effect of the vitrification cryotop method on the expression level of Oct4 and Mest developmental genes in mouse blastocysts was examined.
Materials and Methods: The collected 2-cell embryos of superovulated mouse by oviduct flushing were divided into non-vitrified and vitrified groups. These embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage directly in the non-vitrified group and in the vitrified group, these embryos were cultured to 4-8 cell embryos, vitrified with cryotop in these stages and after 2-6 months, warmed and cultured to blastocyst embryos. Quantitative expression of two developmental genes, namely Oct4 and Mest, were performed in these groups, using RNA purification and Real-time RT-PCR.
Results: Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression level of both genes, Oct4 and Mest, was reduced significantly in the vitrified-warmed group relative to the control group (p=0.046 and p=0.001).
Conclusion: This study revealed that morphologically normal embryos show a reduced amount of Oct4 and Mest transcripts which indicate that the vitrification method negatively effects the expression level of these two developmental genes.
Nastaran Aflatoonian, Soheila Pourmasumi, Abbas Aflatoonian, Maryam Eftekhar,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)
Abstract

Background: Cryopreservation of embryos has been an usual component of clinic in assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs. Recently the dramatic increase in cryobiology activity in the clinical centers has enhanced methods of freezing and improved vitrification protocols are being developed.
Objective: The aim of our study was to assess the effect of storage duration of frozen embryo on ART outcome.
Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study the data of 651 frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles were assessed over a 36-months period. Our patients were categorized according to storage time of freeze. Group I: less than 90 days, Group II: between 90-365 days. Group III: between 365-730 days. Group IV: between 730-1095 days. Group V: more than 1095 days. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were defined and statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test and Chi-square.
Results: According to our finding patient’s mean age was 31.05±5.231 years (range, 18-53 years), and 1204 embryos were transferred .The mean storage duration was 296.72±301.82 days. The mean number of embryo transferred per cycle was similar between groups (p=0.224). According to our analysis clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer cycle was similar between groups (p=0.563).
Conclusion: Our results showed that duration of storage had no negative effects on implantation of cryopreserved embryos. In our literature review we found a little article In this context. However our study showed duration of freezing don’t have any negative effects on implantation and pregnancy outcome, but more studies are needed to evaluate long term effects of storage duration on babies were born by cryopreserved embryos.
Maryam Eftekhar, Sima Janati, Mozhgan Rahsepar, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)
Abstract

Background: Chemical activation is the most frequently used method for artificial oocyte activation (AOA), results in high fertilization rate.
Objective: This prospective, randomized, unblinded, clinical study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of oocyte activation with calcium ionophore on fertilization  and pregnancy rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in infertile men suffer from teratoospermia.
Materials and Methods: Thirty eight women with teratoospermic partner underwent ICSI with antagonist protocol. A total of 313 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were randomly divided into two groups: In the oocytes of the control group (n=145), routine ICSI was applied. Oocytes in the AOA group (n=168) immediately after ICSI, were entered in culture medium supplemented with 5 μΜ calcium ionophore (A23187) for 5 minutes and then washed at least five times with MOPS solution. In both groups, the fertilization was evaluated 16-18 hours after ICSI.
Results: The number of fertilized oocytes and embryos obtained were significantly different between two groups (p=0.04). There was no significant difference between the two studied groups regarding the fertilization and cleavage rate (95.33% vs. 84.4%, p=0.11; and 89.56% vs. 87.74%, p=0.76, respectively). Implantation rate was higher in AOA group than in control group, but the difference was not significant (17.64% vs. 7.4%, p=0.14). No significant differences were observed in chemical and clinical pregnancy rate between groups (47.1% vs. 16.7%, p=0.07; and 41.2% vs. 16.7%; p=0.14, respectively).
Conclusion: We didn’t find significant difference in the implantation, fertilization, cleavage and pregnancy rates between the two groups but could significantly increase the number of fertilized oocytes and embryos obtained. Finally oocyte activation with calcium ionophore may improve ICSI outcomes in infertile men suffer from teratoospermia. Further study with more cases can provide greater value.
Tahereh Eftekhar, Maryam Sohrabi, Fedyeh Haghollahi, Mamak Shariat, Elahe Miri,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)
Abstract

Background: Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem among general population, especially in urogynecological patient, and can lead to a decrease in quality of life and affect martial relationship.
Objective: This study was compared the effect of surgical methods versus physiotherapy on sexual function in pelvic floor disorder.
Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed in Urogynecology clinic since August 2007 to December 2009 on 90 patients aged from 25-55 years with previous delivery, positive history of sexual dysfunction with stage <3 of pelvic organ prolapsed and divided in two groups. Group A (n=45) received standard rectocele repair and prineorrhaphy, group B (n=45) received physiotherapy for eight weeks twice a week (electrical stimulation, Kegel exercises). The female sexual function index (FSFI) used to evaluate the sexual function in cases before and after intervention. Frequency of variable scores (libido, orgasm, dysparunia) included without disorder, frequently good, sometimes good, very much and extreme were compared between two groups.
Results: Libido and arousal were improved in both groups (p=0.007, p=0.001 respectively). Orgasm and dyspareunia were improved in group B (p=0.001). Dysparunia was more painful in group A. There was significant difference between two groups (improvement of orgasm and dysparunia in group B) (p=0.001).
Conclusion: It seems that physiotherapy is an appropriate method for treatment of sexual disorder in pelvic floor disorder.
Maryam Eftekhar, Soheila Pourmasumi, Leila Motamed Zadeh,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (8-2014)
Abstract

Background: Primary and secondary infertility are the most common presenting symptom in patients with pelvic tuberculosis (PT). Endometriosis is commonly associated with an increased risk of infertility. Case: Here, we report a rare case of coexisting PT and endometriosis in a 30-year- old woman, and the effects of controlled ovarian stimulation on reactivation of pathogen. Conclusion: Coexisting endometriosis and tuberculosis of fallopian tube and ovary, as in present case, may alter clinical and radiological features, leading to difficulty in diagnosis. Early diagnosis with surgical exploration and adequate treatment can improve the chances of conception and also minimize morbidity.
Maryam Eftekhar,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (8-2014)
Abstract

20th national congress on infertility and reproduction
Maryam Eftekhar, Soheila Pourmasumi, Mojgan Karimi-Zarchi,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (8-2014)
Abstract

Malignancies are not rare in girl and women during their reproductive years. Over the past three decades, the survival rate for cancer has been improving due to progress in cancer diagnosis and treatment. These patients frequently experience a variety of treatment, and disease-related side effects that diminish their quality of life during and after treatment; among these are loss of fertility and sexual dysfunction. There have been recent advances in the field of fertility preservation, which can allow many of these genital cancer survivors to have children in the future. This topic review discusses available options and specific strategies for fertility preservation in adolescent and young women with malignancies who wish to preserve their ability to become pregnant in the future.
Maryam Eftekhar, Elham Rahmani, Soheila Pourmasumi,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (8-2014)
Abstract

Background: Frozen embryo transfer (FET) is one of the most important supplementary procedures in the treatment of infertile couples. While general information concerning the outcome of fresh embryo transfer has been documented, paucity of investigations has addressed the clinical factors influenced on pregnancy rates in FET.
Objective: In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of clinical factors that potentially influence the outcome of FET.
Materials and Methods: We reviewed the data from 372 women who were subjected to FET registered from April 2009-2011 at the Research and clinical center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Baseline data and pregnancy rate were collected. The data were analyzed statistically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Mann-Whitney tests.
Results: The clinical pregnancy rate was 57.7 and 29.2% in women <35 years old, and women >35 years old, respectively (p<0.0001). Clinical pregnancy rates in women with FSH <10 IU/ml, and FSH >10 IU/ml were 56.3% and 17.5 %, respectively (p<0.0001). Whereas the other clinical parameters consist of reason of fetus freezing, primary IVF protocol, IVF procedure, endometrial thickness, treatment duration to fetal transfer found to be unrelated to FET outcomes (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Female age and basal FSH level are the most important factors influencing the clinical pregnancy rate following FET. 

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