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Showing 17 results for Ebrahimi

Seyed M Kalnatar, Ahmad Ebrahimi, Mehrdad Solimani, Hossein Fazli,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2003)

Background: The high fertilization failure after IVF treatment cycles could be related to chromosomal abnormalities. This study was carried out to assess the frequency of chromosomal abnormality on human oocytes lacking signs of fertilization 18-20 h after insemination . Materials and Methods: On day one, 18-20 h after insemination (IVF), fertilization was confirmed when two pronuclei (normal IVF) or more pronuclei (poly pronucleus FR) were present. Chromosomal analysis of unfertilized oocytes was carried out within 20-24 h of collection. All oocyte did not sign of pronuclei were collected from total fertilization failure, TFF (FR=0) or partial fertilization failure, PFF (FR=10-90%). Chromosomal preparation was carried out as described by Tarkowski�s techniques. The average of finding between two groups was compared by X2 test. Results: Chromosome spreading permitted adequate analyzing in 348 unfertilized oocytes. In 33.6% chromosomal aneulpoidy was observed with the following frequencies; hypo-hyploidy, 22/348 (6.4%), hyper-hyploidy, 42/348 (12.2%) and diploidy, 52/348 (15%). The frequency of aneuoplidy was significantly higher in TFF group 33/80 (41%) than PFF group 83/268 (31%), p<0.01, X2. The most frequent numerical aberration was observed in chromosome group, G of the human karyotyped. Conclusion: Since cytogentic analysis of failed fertilized oocytes and sperm function tests are very helpful for direct information on low success rate of fertilization, further studies analyzing on both gametes function in TFF cycles will be needed.
Mansour Ebrahimi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Background: Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) has been described as an alternative to radioimmunoassay for the mammalian and nonmammalian steroids detection. In this study, a simple and rapid ELISA is described and validated for 4-pregnen-3,20, dione (progesterone). Materials and Methods: A general procedure for preparation of the acetylcholinesterase labelled steroid is described which is applicable to any steroid. Use of acetylcholinesterase tracer increased the sensitivity of assay so that reliable measurements of each steroid could be achieved with only 10 ?l of plasma. Results: Typical standard curves for progesterone steroids showed a workable range (detection limit) from 0.8 to 400 pg/well and the sensitivity of the assay taken as the concentration of steroid that induced 90% of B/B0, was 1.5 pg. Inter-assay variations that gave approximately 50% displacement was 9.2% for 10 replicates and intra-assay co-efficient of variation was less than 10% over the central part of the standard curve between 3 and 200 pg/well. There was a strong positive correlation (r>0.999) between the amount of steroid added to plasma and the amount measured. Conclusion: Method described here was applied to measure progesterone in plasma and this methodology could be of great interest to researchers measuring steroid hormones.
Firoozeh Akbari Asbagh, Mahbod Ebrahimi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition; its incidence is estimated to be as great as 1 in 100 by the age of 40 years. Physiologic replacement of ovarian steroid hormones seems rational until the age of normal menopause. Temporary return of ovarian function and pregnancy may occur rarely in women with POF. We report a case of POF who conceived during hormone replacement therapy.
Case: A 30 years-old woman with confirmed POF after pelvic surgery and sever emotional stress conceived spontaneously.
Conclusion: Return of ovarian function and achievement of pregnancy is possible in women with POF.
Mahbod Ebrahimi , Firoozeh Akbari Asbagh, Azizeh Ghaseminejad,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

 Background: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycle is an ideal protocol for some subfertile patients. So, we decided to try this therapeutic protocol for the patients with unilateral tubal blockage diagnosed by hysterosalpingography (HSG).       
Objective: To evaluate the effect of unilateral tubal blockage diagnosed by HSG on cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR) of the stimulated IUI cycles.          
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed between October 2006 and October 2009 in an academic reproductive endocrinology and infertility center. Two groups of patients undergoing stimulated IUI cycles were compared. Sixty-four infertile couples with unilateral tubal blockage diagnosed by HSG as the sole cause of infertility in the group (І), and two hundred couples with unexplained infertility in the group (II). The patients underwent 3 consecutive ovarian hyperstimulation (Clomiphen citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin) and IUI cycles. The main outcome measurements were the CPRs per patients for 3 consecutive stimulated IUI cycles.                                            
Results: Cycle characteristics were found to be homogenous between the both groups. CPRs were similar in group І (26.6%) and group II (28%) (p=0.87; OR=1.075; 95% CI: 0.57 -2.28).
Conclusion: Unilateral tubal blockage (diagnosed on HSG) has no effect on success rate of stimulated IUI cycles, so COH and IUI could be recommended as the initial therapeutic protocol in these patients.
Bibi Shahnaz Aali, Sakineh Ebrahimipour, Siavash Medhdizadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)

Background: Controlled ovarian stimulation combined with intra uterine insemination (IUI) is a convenient treatment of infertility with a success rate of 11%. The clinical observation and pattern of progesterone secretion in this method is suggestive of luteal phase defect and postulated as an implicating factor of treatment failure.
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of luteal phase support with intravaginal cyclogest in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation combined with intrauterine insemination.
Materials and Methods: In this single-blinded clinical trial, 196 consecutively seen women eligible for the study protocol, were randomized to receive either intravaginal progesterone (cyclogest pessary, Actavis) or no medication in luteal phase. Blood samples were collected and serum progesterone level in 7th and 11th day of the cycle, biochemical and clinical pregnancy and luteal phase duration were compared in case and control groups.
Results: The mean age in case and control group was 28 and 27.9 years, respectively and the most frequent cause of infertility was unexplained. Additionally, ovulatory dysfunction was the most common cause of female infertility in both groups. Based on these variables, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Mean serum progesterone level in the case group were 48.34 and 34.24nmol/day on day 7 and 11 after insemination, respectively and both values were significantly higher than the control group. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of biochemical and clinical pregnancy. Luteal phase duration in the case group was significantly longer than the control group.
Conclusion: Luteal phase support by Cyclogest pessary increases progesterone level and prolongs the luteal phase, but does not affect success rate of IUI cycles in terms of achieving pregnancy.
Leili Hafizi, Mostafa Gholizadeh, Mohammad Karimi, Golkoo Hosseini, Hesam Mostafavi-Toroghi, Mehdi Haddadi, Amin Rezaiean, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Neda Emami Meibodi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)

Background: Magnetized water has made many improvements in industry, agriculture and medicine. However its utilization in medicine still remains controversial.
Objective:  In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of magnetized water on height of epithelial cells in pre-implantation stage endometrium and fallopian tube and number of corpus lutea in female mice.
Materials and Methods:  Eighty female NRMI mice were recruited to this experimental study and randomly divided into two groups: the control group which drank normal water and the experimental (case) group which drank magnetized water for 2 weeks. Super-ovulation was induced in these mice and then they were mated with male mice as well. Samples of ovary, uterus and fallopian tube were obtained at the pre-implantation stage. Then, after preparation, the number of corpus lutea in each ovary was counted and the height of fallopian and endometrial epithelial cells was measured by light microscopy.
Results:  Data analysis showed a significant increase in the mean number of corpus lutea and the height of epithelial cells in fallopian tube comparing the case with the control group (p=0.01, p=0.002 respectively) whereas uterus epithelial cells of the case group showed insignificant increase in height, in compare with the control group (p=0.052).
Conclusion:  Our results suggest that magnetized water intake increases the number of corpus lutea and the height of fallopian tube epithelial cells. Further research is needed to determine whether this will increase in the success rate of fertility.
Shahrzad Zadehmodarres, Zahra Heidar, Zahra Razzaghi, Leili Ebrahimi, Kaveh Soltanzadeh, Farhang Abed,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (5-2015)

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that accompanied with long term complications. The early diagnosis of this syndrome can prevent it.
Objective: The aim was to determine the role of anti-mullerian hormon (AMH) in PCOS diagnosis and to find cut off level of it.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 117 women between 20-40 years old were participated in two groups: 60 PCOS women (based on Rotterdam criteria consensus) as the case group and 57 normal ovulatory women as the control group. In day 2-4 of cycle, transvaginal sonography was performed and serum hormonal level of AMH, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E 2 ), testosterone, fasting blood sugar (FBS), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) were measured in all of participants. For all of them score of hirsutism (base on Freeman-Galloway scoring) was determined.
Results: There were statistically significant in irregular pattern of menstruation, AMH and FSH level, and presence of hirsutism between two groups. But regarding mean of age, body mass index, plasma level of PRL, TSH, LH, Testosterone, FBS, and E 2 differences were not significant. Construction by ROC curve present 3.15 ng/ml as AMH cut off with 70.37% sensitivity and 77.36% specificity in order to PCOS diagnosis.
Conclusion: AMH with cut off level of 3.15 ng/ml with sensitivity 70.37% and specificity 77.36% could use for early diagnosis of PCOS patients.
Mahbod Ebrahimi, Firouzeh Akbari Asbagh ,
Volume 13, Issue 8 (9-2015)

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a heterogeneous syndrome with several causative factors. Autoimmune mechanisms are involved in pathogenesis of 4-30 % of POF cases. The present review focuses on the role of autoimmunity in the pathophysiology of POF. The evidences for an autoimmune etiology are: demonstration of ovarian autoantibodies, the presence of lymphocytic oophoritis, and association with other autoimmune disorders. Several ovarian antigenic targets have been identified in POF patients. The oocyte seems to be the most often targeted cell. Lymphocytic oophoritis is widely present in POF associated adrenal insufficiency. Addisonۥs disease is one of the most common autoimmune disorders associated with POF. Early detection of this potentially life threatening disease was recommended in several studies. The gold standard for detecting autoimmune POF is ovarian biopsy. This procedure is not recommended due to unknown clinical value, expense, and risks. Several immunoassays have been proposed as substitute diagnostic tools. Nevertheless, there is no clinically proven sensitive and specific serum test to confirm the diagnosis of autoimmune POF or to anticipate the patient’s chance of developing POF or associated diseases. Some authors suggested the possible effects of immuno-modulating therapy on the resumption of ovarian function and fertility in a selected group of autoimmune POF patients. However, in most instances, this treatment fails to reverse the course of the disease. Numerous studies illustrated that standard treatment outcome for infertility is less effective in the presence of ovarian autoimmunity. The antibody-induced damage could be a pathogenic factor. Nevertheless, the precise cause remains obscure.
Mohammad Ehsan Rahiminejad, Amirhossein Moaddab, Mehrnoosh Ebrahimi, Soghra Rabiee, Alireza Zamani, Mohammad Ezzati, Alireza Abdollah Shamshirsaz,
Volume 13, Issue 9 (10-2015)

Background: Endometrial secretion analysis is a non-invasive and promising method in evaluation of endometrial receptivity.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between the success rate of IVF procedures and some endometrial secretion cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP).
Materials and Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 50 women selected for IVF met the study inclusion criteria. All the patients underwent endometrial secretion aspiration prior to embryo transfer. The level of IL-1β, TNF-α, IP-10 and MCP were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method using special standard kits. To detect successful implantation and pregnancy patients underwent serum human chorionic gonadotropin measurements and ultrasound evaluation.
Results: Five samples were excluded. Nine women (20%) had successful clinical pregnancies, which resulted in live birth. Other 36 women (80%) were classified as failed pregnancy. Comparison of cytokine levels showed lower concentrations of TNF-α, IP-10, and MCP in the group with successful clinical pregnancy compared to the group with failed pregnancy (p=0.007, 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). However, no significant difference was revealed in IL-1β levels between two groups (p=0.614).
Conclusion: The current study suggested that lower concentrations of TNF-α, IP-10, and MCP in endometrial secretions might be associated with improved endometrial receptivity and IVF outcome. Regarding IL-1β, no statistically significant differences were seen between the groups with and without successful pregnancy.
Shahnaz Shekarforoush, Zahra Ebrahimi, Maryam Hoseini,
Volume 13, Issue 12 (1-2015)

Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10), 100mg/kg (S100), and 260 mg/kg (S260) while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats.
Seyedeh Nazanin, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Hannan Ebrahimi, Hanieh Rafati Sajedi, Gelayol Chatrnour,
Volume 14, Issue 10 (10-2016)

Background: Physical exercise is known to be a stressor stimulus that leads to reproductive disruption.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forced swimming on the uterus and ovaries in mice.
Materials and Methods: Adult mice (N=24) were divided into the following threegroups: A, control; B, swimming in water (10PoPC); and C, swimming in water (23PoPC).Swimmers swam for 5 min daily for 5 consecutive days/ wk during 2 wks. Anenzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum estradiol, folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels. Immunohistochemistry wasperformed to study apoptotic cells or estrogen receptor (ER) expression in uterineepithelial cells and ovaries. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis56T.
Results: Swimming in both groups reduced the serum FSH and estradiol levels (p<0.01) without having a significant effect on the serum testosterone level or percentage of apoptosis in ovarian and uterine tissues (p<0.01) compared with controls. A significant reduction in the number of ERs in the uterus and ovaries, and secondary and graafian follicles were observed in groups B and C compared with controls (p<0.01); however the number of primordial and primary follicles were not significantly changed in the ovaries.
Conclusion: Forced swimming of 2 wks duration reduces the serum levels of FSH and estradiol without having effects on apoptosis in the ovaries or uteri of mice. Over a long period of time, forced swimming may have an adverse effect on fertility.
Mahbod Ebrahimi, Firouzeh Akbari-Asbagh, Mojgan Ghalandar-Attar,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Background:Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol has been proposed as a potentially proper option for the patients with limited ovarian reserve. Nevertheless, there is no significant difference in terms of clinical pregnancy between the GnRH antagonist and agonist cycles. The use of aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole was suggested by some studies.
Objective: The object of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of letrozole co-treatment with GnRH-antagonist protocol in ovarian stimulation of poor responder patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Materials and Methods: A double-blinded randomized control trial was conducted on 70 infertile women with poor ovarian response based on Bologna criteria in two groups: letrozole+GnRH-antagonist (LA) group and placebo+GnRH-antagonist (PA) group (n=35/each). The LA group involved at letrozole 2.5 mg daily over 5 days and recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone 225 IU/daily. The PA group received placebo over 5 days and recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone at the same starting day and dose, similar to LA group. GnRH-antagonist was introduced once one or more follicle reached ≥14 mm. The main outcome measures were the number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, implantation rate, cycle cancellation rate, and clinical pregnancy rate.
Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between groups. There were no significant differences between groups regarding the number of oocytes retrieved (p=0.81), number of embryos transferred (p=0.82), fertilization rate (p=0.225), implantation rate (p=0.72), total cycle cancelation rate (p=0.08), and clinical pregnancy rate (p=0.12).
Conclusion: The use of letrozole in GnRH-antagonist cycles does not improve clinical outcomes in poor responder patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Elaheh Mesdaghinia, Behnaz Mohammad-Ebrahimi, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Hamid Reza Banafshe,
Volume 15, Issue 10 (12-2017)

Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion has high incidence rate. The etiology is unknown in 30-40%. However high uterine artery resistance is accounted as one of the recurrent abortion reasons.
Objective: The objective of the current study was to determine the impacts of vitamin E and aspirin on the uterine artery blood flow in women having recurrent abortions due to impaired uterine blood flow.
Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 99 women having uterine pulsatility index (PI) more than 2.5 and the history of more than two times abortions. The candidates were categorized into three groups; receiving aspirin, only vitamin E, and aspirin+vitamin E. After 2 months, uterine PIs were compared with each other.
Results: All drug regimens caused an enhancement in uterine perfusion with a significant decline in uterine artery PI value. The women receiving vitamin E in accompanied with aspirin had the least mean PI of the uterine artery (p<0.001). The total average PI score of the right and left uterine arteries in groups receiving vitamin E in accompanied with aspirin was lower than the two counterparts significantly (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Vitamin E, aspirin and especially their combination are effective in improving uterine artery blood flow in women with recurrent abortion due to impaired uterine blood flow. More well-designed studies are needed to find out whether the enhancement of uterine perfusion may lead to a better pregnancy outcome.
Sima Taghvaee Javanshir, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Zahra HajEbrahimi,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (April 2018)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common form of the endocrine disease which is associated with metabolic dysfunction. PCOS and type 2 diabetes mellitus are related in multiple aspects and are similar in many pathological features. Anti-diabetic effects of Nigella sativa and protective effects of it on reproductive system have been suggested in some reports.
Objective: The aim of current study was to evaluate the effects of thymoquinone, the main components of Nigella sativa, on PCOS model of rats.
Materials and Methods: Intraperitoneal injection of estradiol valerate for 25 days was used to induce PCOS in Wistar rats, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 8 and 16 mg/kg thymoquinone for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups; control, sham or PCOS, experiment-1 (PCOS and 8 mg/kg thymoquinone), experiment-2 (PCOS and 16 mg/kg thymoquinone), and metformin (PCOS and metformin administration, 100 mg/kg) groups. All of the animals were subjected to serum biochemical analysis of blood and histopathological study of ovaries.
Results: Estradiol valerate induced PCOS while administration of thymoquinone recovered it. The body weight, ovarian morphology, and ovulation had been improved and the serum biochemical parameters including glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were reversed after thymoquinone intervention.
Conclusion: Our data suggest that thymoquinone has improvement effects on an ovarian function and ovulation in the PCOS rat model. Therefore, thymoquinone and Nagilla sativa could be used as a protective agent and as an adjunct treatment in PCOS patients.
Zeinab Oshrieh, Afsaneh Keramat, Mohammad Shariati, Najmeh Tehranian, Elham Ebrahimi, Mohammad Effatpanah,
Volume 17, Issue 12 (December 2019)

Background: Childbearing motives are considered as the primary stimulus of fertility and the importance of making fertility decisions in humans.
Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a new form of interactional program on the childbearing motives of students.
Materials and Methods: According to a well-defined, single-blind randomized controlled trial, we selected eight government schools in Tehran. Students in the age range of 7-12 yr and 16-18 yr (130 students in each school with a total number of 260) were selected for a series of intervention from storytelling to free discussion on a special subject through the concept of hidden curriculum. We evaluate the outcome with pretest-posttest based on the Miller childbearing motives questionnaire. One month after the last intervention, final evaluation took place.
Results: The findings showed that after an intervention conducted in the best way, all positive scores were promoted while the negative ones declined. One the other hand, no matter what really the participant’s groups were, their total intention score got better. In this way, the total positive scores were significantly increased in the intervention groups (p = 0.000) Also, the students in high school significantly improved in positive scores and the negative score decreased in them.
Conclusion: This study showed that the fundamental childbearing motives even with small interventions can be improved. Our intervention could improve the positive childbearing motives among school girls. In this regard, the role of some confounding factor such as the role of some confounding factors such as religious beliefs in family, maternal education is most important.
Nazanin Alavi, Mahbod Ebrahimi, Firoozeh Akbari-Asbagh,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (February 2020)

Background: Vitamin D deficiency and infertility are two important health problems in Iran. Some studies suggest that vitamin D may influence Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) as an ovarian reserve.
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin D on AMH serum concentrations/AFC.
Materials and Methods: three hundred and five infertile women referred to the IVF Unit of Yas hospital, between July and December 2017, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The demographic characteristics of the participants, as well as the serum levels of vitamin D, AMH, and ultrasonic examination of AFC were recorded.
Results: Finally, 287 infertile women were included in the analysis with a mean age of 29.95 ± 4.73 yr (18-45 yr) and a mean Body mass indexof 25.11 ± 4.41 kg/m2. The median AMH and vitamin D levels were 3.20 and 22.82 ng/ml, respectively. Considering the cut-off level of 20 ng/ml, 58.7% were vitamin D deficient. Regression analysis showed no association between AMH and vitamin D levels (p = 0.161), even after adjusting for baseline variables (p = 0.182). A total of 120 patients had an AFC < 6 and 164 ≥ 6, which was not statistically different between the groups with normal level or deficient vitamin D (p = 0.133).
Conclusion: The present cross-sectional study showed no significant association between serum levels of vitamin D and AMH or AFC in infertile women, even after adjusting for baseline variables.
Parichehr Pooransari, Atefeh Ebrahimi, Nataliya Nazemi, Fariba Yaminifar, Zhila Abediasl,
Volume 18, Issue 6 (June 2020)

Background: The relation of placental gross morphology and the outcome of pregnancies complicated with diabetes mellitus in comparison with healthy pregnancies is not known. Identifying significant differences in pregnancy outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and healthy pregnancies by the means of morphologic measurements can induce the use of antenatal ultrasonography of placental parameters to predict pregnancy outcomes.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between placental morphological parameters of the placenta and cord and the outcomes of pregnancies complicated with diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, which was conducted at two referral perinatology center in Tehran between March 2017 and November 2018, 60 pregnant women with GDM who were controlled with either diet or insulin as the case group and 60 pregnant women without GDM as the control group were enrolled. The study population were selected from patients who had their prenatal care and delivery in Mahdieh and Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital. The data was collected by taking sickness history, using data from patients files, and measuring of placental and newborn parameters after delivery. GDM was diagnosed either by 75 gr or 100 gr oral glucose tolerance tests. Placenta parameters, umbilical cord features, and newborn outcomes were compared between the two groups.
Results: Placental weight, diameter, number of lobes, thickness, placental weight to-newborn weight ratio, place of umbilical cord insertion, length, coiling, and diameter of the umbilical cord are similar in two groups. Newborn weight, NICU admission, ABG, and Apgar score are also the same in well-controlled GDM pregnancy and pregnancy without GDM.
Conclusion: Good controlled GDM causes no difference in placental gross morphology and pregnancy outcome compared to a healthy pregnancy.

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