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Showing 30 results for Dehghani

Valli A Dehghani, Mohammad A Khalili, Nahid Zamani, Fakhri Dreh-Zereshki,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Proper collections of human ejaculates are necessary for semen analysis and infertility treatment purposes. The objective of this study was to assess the seminal characteristics of ejaculates collected by patients via masturbation and coitus interruptus. Thirty individuals produced one sample via masturbation and one via incomplete coitus during a 3-days interval. The semen parameters were compared and analyzed with student t-test and Nemar test. The results showed that mean values for progressive motility of spermatozoa were increased from 46.81+15.7% to 58.76+13.5% in coitus interruptus and masturbation, respectively (P<0.01). Also, the mean values for normal sperm morphology was 54.03+25.1% in coitus interruptus and 63.36+13.4% in samples collected via masturbation (P<0.01). In addition, sperm concentration was significantly improved in ejaculates collected with masturbation (P<0.05). Although, insignificant, the concentration of round cells were lower in specimens collected via masturbation than coitus interruptus. Therefore, via masturbation method, better semen characteristics were yielded which subsequently may improve the infertility treatment outcome.
Razieh Dehghani Firouzabady, Irandokht Mehri Mahani, Mehdi Dehghani Firouzabady,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)

Background: Embryo transfer has received little clinical attention and has been the most inefficient step in in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Recent reports have suggested that an awareness of the position and length of the uterus during embryo transfer might be helpful in improving pregnancy rate. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to determine the relation between the length and position of the uterus during embryo transfer and pregnancy rate. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to two groups. In case group A (n=40) length of uterus was measured at the day of oocytes collection and the position of uterus was determined. In the control group, Group B, (n=40) the length and position of uterus were not investigated. The embryo transfer catheter was advanced to 5 mm from uterine fondues based on the previously determined cavity length in group A. The embryo transfer procedures ( IVF/ICSI) at 48 hours after oocytes collection was done. The outcome of the treatment cycle in two groups was investigated. Data analysis was performed by using chi-square, fisher-exact and ANOVA tests. The statistical significant was defined (P?0.05). Results: There were no significant differences in the mean age (28.5+4.4, 27.8+6.2), and duration of infertility (7+3.4, 8.7+5.4). The pregnancy rate was not significantly different with respect to position and length of uterus. The pregnancy rate in case groups was 25% and in control group was 22.5%, the difference was not significant (P= 0.792). In both groups, there were ectopic peregnancy and in fact he incidence of ectopic pregnancy, per reported clinical pregnancy, was highest in group A (14.9%) in comparison with group B (1.8%). Conclusion: The pregnancy rate was not significantly different in the two groups. Misdirecting the embryo transfer can not be avoided by an accurate knowledge of the position or length of uterine at the time of oocytes retrieval. Further studies are required to evaluate the role of length and position of uterus related to the pregnancy rate. Article
Seyed Saeid Mazloomy, Mahdieh Shirvani-Anarak, Abbas-Ali Dehghani, Nasim Tabibnejad, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background: Since AIDS is not only a vital medical problem, but also a socioeconomic complication, therefore increasing people's knowledge and replacing their unhealthy behavior by a healthy one is of important consideration. Women, specially in reproductive ages of their life, have a special situation regarding the probability of pregnancy and infection of their fetus.
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore pregnant women's knowledge about HIV/AIDS, their perception of risk, risk behavior and management, and their attitudes towards AIDS.
Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, a total of 120 pregnant women, who referred to family health clinics in Yazd, were selected by simple random sampling. Information was collected via a special designed questionnaire containing 22 questions for evaluating knowledge and 6 questions for evaluating attitude. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test with SPSS software.
Results: The knowledge of pregnant women about AIDS was not significantly different in different age groups (p=0.151), while it had a significant relationship with their education (p=0.000). There was a correlation between general knowledge and attitude in pregnant women (p=0.033) (r=0.126). The attitude about AIDS in pregnant women was fairly good and there was a significant difference in this regard related to their education (p=0.000), while there was not significant difference regarding their age (p=0.410) (Mean =19.8).
Conclusion: There is an urgent need for HIV prevention efforts, such as health education and focusing on the pregnant women in developing world. Health educators should tailor education programs for women at risk, particularly those with lower education, to enhance their knowledge about HIV and to improve their attitude about AIDS.
Razieh Dehghani Firoozabadi, Seyed Mehdi Klantar, Seyed Mohammad Seyed-Hasani, Nasrin Ghasemi, Maryam Asgharnia, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background: Recurrent abortion is a difficult medical problem happening in about 1-2% of fertile women. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities.
Objective: The present study tries to find the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.
Materials and Methods: In total 165 couples were referred to genetic counselling clinic with a history of at least three previous abortions. In all women antibodies against toxsoplasmose, rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were analysed by ELIZA. In 88 couples karyotyping was conducted by analysis of G and/or C banding. Metaphase spreads were made from phytohaemaglutinin-stimulated peripheral lymphocytes using standard cytogenetic techniques. The chromosomal status was analyzed using CytoVision Ultra ver.4.0 from Applied Imaging. The 2-test and ANOVA were used for statistical evaluation. The level of p<0.05 was considered as significance.
Results: Most of the patients had 3 repeated abortions (61.2%). Cytogenetic analysis performed for 88 couples and karyotypes of 12.5% of them were abnormal. The majority of them had monosomy X (6.82%), followed by balanced translocation (2.27%). The number of female carries chromosomal abnormality exceeded significantly than of male. Coefficient of inbreeding in more than 50% of couples had fifth degree of relationship (89 out of 165). Conclusion: Our results showed that 12.5% of the couples with missed abortion had an abnormal karyotype, with no other abnormality. Cytogenetic findings in spontaneous aborted specimens could provide valuable information for genetic counseling and prenatal care in future pregnancies in couples with a history of repeated pregnancy loss.
Mohammad Reza Moein, Vali Ollah Dehghani, Nasim Tabibnejad, Serajadin Vahidi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)

Background: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are a group of free radicals that in excessive amounts have negative influence on sperm quality and function.
Objective: We compared ROS levels in seminal plasma of infertile men with this level in healthy donors. We also determined the ROS level in semen of infertile men according to the etiology of infertility, and also the effect of smoking on its level.
Materials and Methods: In total, 63 infertile patients and 63 healthy donors as control were selected. Complete physical examination, semen analysis, scrotal sonography and hormone assay were done for all patients. Azoospermic patients were excluded from the study. ROS level in semen was measured by chemiluminescence assay in both groups. Patients also were divided in two groups according to the etiology of infertility.
Results: The mean age of normal subjects and infertile men were 30.78±3.73 years and 31.43±6.60 years respectively. The mean ROS level in normal men was 180.05 RLU (Relative light unit), while this was 1852.04 RLU in infertile patients, which is significantly higher in case group (p=0.000). Fifty patients had varicocele and in 13 patients no specific etiology was found. The mean ROS level in varicocele patients was 2215.42 RLU and in unknown group was 454.44 RLU (p=0.048).
Conclusion: Our study showed that the level of ROS in seminal fluid of infertile men is significantly higher than fertile donors and also in infertile patients with varicocele it is higher than patients with unknown cause.
Masoomeh Kazemi, Sahraei Hedayat, Mahnaz Azarnia, Dehghani Leila, Hossein Bahadoran,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function.
Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers.
Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells.
Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05). Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups. Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed.
Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Farzaneh Goharzad,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presentation of uterine abnormalities among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for detecting the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.
Materials and Methods: A total of 65 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in this study. A prior saline contrast sonohysetrography followed by a hysteroscopy was performed in all cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and test accuracy were calculated. Results: As the most common abnormality, SCSH showed hyperplasia in 19 patients while hysteroscopy diagnosed polyp in 15 cases. A sensitivity of 73.3%, 71.4% and 90.9% were reported for polyp, hyperplasia and submucous myoma respectively whereas the specificity was calculated 96% for polyps, 82.3% for hyperplasia and 90.7% for submucous myoma.
Conclusion: Comparing with hysteroscopy, sonohysterography showed a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting submucous myoma but not for endometrial polyp and endometrial hyperplasia.
Seyed Morteza Seifati, Kazem Parivar, Abbas Aflatoonian, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)

Background: Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecologic disorders. It is a complex trait and both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that exposure to environmental contaminants is a risk factor for endometriosis. Glutathione-S-Transferase M1 (GSTM1) is one of the genes involved in detoxification of endogenous and exogenous compounds.
Objective: Several studies have indicated an association between GSTM1 null mutation and endometriosis. In this study, the possible association between the GSTM1 gene null genotype and susceptibility to endometriosis in woman from central and southern Iran was investigated.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and one unrelated premenopausal women with endometriosis and 142 unrelated healthy premenopausal women without endometriosis were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from Peripheral blood in all subjects. GSTM1 null genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: There was no significant difference between frequencies of GSTM1 null genotype in case and control groups (50.5% Vs. 52.1%, p=0.804). Furthermore, this genotype was not associated with severity of endometriosis in our sample (p=0.77).
Conclusion: further studies involving gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, particularly combination of GSTM1 and other GST gene family polymorphisms are needed.
Maryam Eftekhar, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Hesamoddin Karimi, Elham Rahmani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: GnRH agonist and antagonist were developed to control the premature release of LH surge. There is some difference between two protocols.
Objective: We compared the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer in infertile women who used GnRH agonist or antagonist protocol for previous COH cycle and evaluation of any adverse effect of GnRH antagonist on oocyte and embryo.
Materials and Methods: The study group included all infertile women who referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Overall 20-35 years old women who were candidate for frozen-thawed embryo transfer with regard to inclusion and exclusion criteria were participated in the study. The patients based on previous control ovarian stimulation (COH) protocol divided in to two groups: GnRH agonist long protocol (n=165) and GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol (n=165). Frozen-thawed embryos were transferred after endometrial preparation in both groups. Main outcome measures were: implantation, chemical and clinical pregnancy rate.
Results: The implantation and clinical pregnancy rate following cryopreserved embryo transfer in GnRH agonist group and antagonist group were 16.3% vs. 15.7% (p=0.806) and 38.1% (63/165) vs. 36.9% (61/165) (p=0.915) and chemical pregnancy rate was 44.8% (74/165) vs. 43.6% (72/165) (p=0.915) respectively.
Conclusion: There was no statistically difference between two groups in terms of implantation and pregnancy rate. Although pregnancy rate in fresh embryo transfer in antagonist cycles was lower than agonist groups, Therefore decrease in these parameters might be due to detrimental effect of GnRH antagonist on the endometrium, not embryo or oocyte.
Tahereh Esmaeilpour, Leila Elyasi, Soghra Bahmanpour, Alireza Ghannadi, Ahmad Monabbati, Farzaneh Dehghani, Marjaneh Kazerooni,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: It has been claimed that by using different washing methods, the sperms can be separated according to size, motility, density, chromosomal content and surface markings and charge. These methods also reduce sperm chromatin deficiencies and screen the sperms before applying in assisted reproduction techniques.
Objective: This study compared simple density gradient methods and a combined method with albumin density gradient and PureSperm separation (alb/PureSperm) for sex preselection by double fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) versus chromomycin A3 staining to determine chromatin integrity. Materials and Methods: 30 normal semen samples were prepared with PureSperm, albumin gradients and alb/PureSperm. All samples were then stained by FISH and chromomycin A3. The results were compared with SPSS 11.5 and the Kruskal-Wallis test.
Results: The proportion of X-bearing spermatozoa by PureSperm separation (47.58±5.67) and Y-bearing spermatozoa by albumin gradient (46.13±3.83) methods were slightly higher than in putative normal sperm samples (1:1), but there were no significant differences in the X- or Y- bearing spermatozoa counts among the three methods. Albumin gradient separation tended to underestimate abnormal spermatozoa compared to PureSperm and combined alb/PureSperm.
Conclusion: Routine separation methods slightly enriched X- or Y- bearing spermatozoa, but the differences were not significant for clinical purposes. The combined alb/PureSperm method had no advantages for assessing sex ratio or chromatin integrity compared to simpler gradient methods.
Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Farnaz Mohammadian, Mehri Mashayekhy, Robab Davar, Maryam Eftekhar,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Determination of oocyte fertilization and embryo quality are one of the most important purposes in ART cycles. Follicular fluid provides an important microenvironment for development of oocytes and some biochemical characteristics of the follicular fluid, such as pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), may play an important role in prediction of success rate of ART.
Objective: This study was performed to evaluate whether there was any difference in follicular fluid PAPP-A, fertilization, and embryo quality between GnRH agonist long protocol and flexible GnRH antagonist multiple-dose protocol in ART cycles.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women who were candidates for ART were enrolled the study and were divided into two groups, GnRH agonist (GnRHa) long protocol (n=51) and flexible GnRH antagonist (GnRHant) multiple-dose protocol (n=49). Follicular fluid sample was obtained from a single mature follicle and follicular fluid PAPP-A level, fertilization and embryo quality of the same oocyte were evaluated in both groups.
Results: There was no significant difference in the mean levels of follicular fluid PAPP-A between the GnRHa protocol and GnRHant protocol (3.5±1.4 vs. 3.8±1.9, respectively). The mean levels of follicular fluid PAPP-A in fertilized oocyte and good quality embryo were comparable in GnRHa and GnRHant protocols.
Conclusion: Our data indicated that no differences of follicular fluid PAPP-A levels were observed between cycles using GnRHa long protocol and those of using flexible GnRHant multiple-dose protocol.
Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Robab Davar, Farzaneh Hojjat, Mohamad Mahdavi,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)

Background: Sildenafil citrate may increase endometrial thickness and affect the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.
Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of sildenafil citrate on ultrasonographic endometrial thickness and pattern and to investigate the estrogen level on the day of progesterone administration, the implantation rate and chemical pregnancy rate in frozen embryo transfer cycles.
Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 80 patients who had an antecedent of poor endometrial response and frozen embryos. 40 patients were given estradiol by a step up method with menstruation to prepare the endometrium, and the other 40 were given sildenafil citrate tablets (50 mg) daily in addition to the above treatment protocol from the first day of the cycle until the day progesterone was started. This was discontinued 48-72 hours prior to the embryo transfer.
Results: The endometrial thickness was significantly higher in the sildenafil citrate group (p<0.0001), the triple line patterns of the endometrium were significantly higher in the sildenafil citrate group (p<0.0001), while the intermediate patterns of the endometrium were not significantly different in the two groups. The echogen patterns of the endometrium were significantly higher in control group (p<0.0001). Finally, implantation rate and the chemical pregnancy rates were higher in the sildenafil citrate group but not significantly.
Conclusion: As our study shows, the oral use of sildenafil citrate is a good way to improve the endometrial receptivity. We recommend the routine use of oral sildenafil citrate in patients with a previous failure of assisted reproduction technology cycles due to poor endometrial thickness.
Parvaneh Najafizadeh, Farzaneh Dehghani, Mohammadreza Panjeh Shahin, Sommaye Hamzei Taj,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)

Background: Olive ( Olea europea ), from the Oleaceae family, is known as a phytoestrogen plant compound, containing Lignans and phenolic compounds. Some studies have shown phytoestrogens to have spermatogenesis-decreasing effects.
Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male rats.
Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic olive ( Olea europaea ) extract was given orally to three experimental groups of rats in 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg in 48 days. The vehicle group was fed with normal saline and nothing was given to the control group (each group with 8 rats). After 49 days reproductive indicators i.e., sperm count, sperm motility, the weight of prostate, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were measured.
Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the weights of the left testicle, seminal vesicle, testosterone hormone, sperm count and sperm motility but there was no significant difference with regard to the weights of prostate and epididymis, and estradiol hormone .
Conclusion: This study suggests that olive extract may have deleterious effects on fertility factors; therefore, after further studies, it may be used as a contraceptive in males.
Razieh Fallah, Sedighah Akhavan Karbasi, Mohammad Taghi Galalian, Razieh Dehghani-Firouzabadi,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (7-2013)

Background: Approximately one percent of current live births of the world are conceived via assisted reproductive technologies (ART).
Objective:  The purpose of this study was to compare the developmental status of children born through assisted and natural conceptions at the age of five years.
Materials and Methods:  In a retrospective cohort study, developmental status of 5 years old children was evaluated via Persian version of 60-month Ages and Stages Questionnaires. Case group consisted of 61 singletons, term babies whom were born through ART in the Research and Clinical Center for Infertility, Yazd, Iran in 2005. Control group consisted of 61 term, first child, singleton and spontaneously conceived born five years old children whom were referred to Shahid Akbari primary health care center in 2010.
Results:  58 girls (47.5%) and 64 boys (52.5%) were evaluated. Frequency of developmental delay in domains of fine motor (47.5% vs. 24.6%, p=0.008) and problem solving (60.6% vs. 34.4%, p=0.004) were more in ART born children. On logistic regression, fine motor development state was independently affected by maternal educational level (OR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.67-16.30, p=0.004) and developmental status in problem solving domains was independently affected by maternal educational level (OR: 4.88, 95% CI: 1.25-19.07, p=0.02) and birth weight (OR: 7.1, 95% CI: 1.78-29.01, p=0.006).
Conclusion:  Maternal educational level and birth weight are important factors that influenced developmental outcome of ART born children.
Hossein Bordbar, Tahereh Esmaeilpour, Farzaneh Dehghani, Mohammad Reza Panjehshahin,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: In traditional medicine zingiber officinale used to regulate female menstural cycle and treat male infertility. Recent studies have suggested the possible role of ginger extract in improving the testicular damage of busulfan.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zingiber officinale on the sperm parameters, testosterone level and the volume of the testes and seminiferous tubules by stereological methods.
Materials and Methods: Fifty rats were divided into four groups. All the rats were given a single intraperitoneally injection of 5mg/kg busulfan solution. The first group was kept as busulfan control, while the other groups were orally administrated ginger extract in graded doses of 50, 100 and 150mg/kg b.wt, for 48 consecutive days. At the end, all animals were anesthetized and their testes and vas deference were removed, fixed, embedded, and stained. The volume of testes and seminiferous tubules were estimated by cavalieri methods.
Results: The result showed, that zingiber officinale increased the volumes of seminiferous tubule in 100mg/kg treated group compared to control group. Sperm count (706×105 and 682×105) and the level of testosterone (50.90 ng/mL and 54.10 ng/mL) enhanced in 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg treated groups compared to control group (p=0.00).
Conclusion: It seems that zingiber officinale stimulate male reproductive system in induce busulfan infertility.
Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Niloofar Vaziri, Hoorieh Daneshbodi, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: There is some evidence regarding the effect of poly unsaturated fatty acid intake on androgen levels and gonadal function in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effect of omega-3 supplementation on sex hormone-binding protein (SHBG), testosterone, free androgen index (FAI) and menstrual status in women with PCOS.
Materials and Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 78 overweight/obese women with PCOS. Participants were randomized to receive omega-3 (3gr/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. Data about weight, height and nutrient intake as well as blood samples were collected before and after intervention. Serum concentrations of testosterone (nmol/L) and SHBG (nmol/L) were measured. FAI was also calculated as the ratio of testosterone to SHBG.
Results: Seventy eight patients (age: 26.92±5.46 yrs, Body Mass Index: 31.69±4.84 Kg/m2) completed the study. There was no significant difference in mean age, weight, height, Body Mass Index and intake of energy, and macronutrients between 2 study groups before and after treatment. All the participants had irregular periods. After the trial the percentage of regular menstruation in the omega-3 group was more than the placebo group (47.2% vs. 22.9%, p=0.049). Furthermore, testosterone concentration was significantly lower in the omega-3 group compared with placebo, after supplementation (p=0.04). SHBG and FAI did not change in either group.
Conclusion: Omega-3 supplementation could reduce serum concentrations of testosterone and regulate menstrual cycle without significant effect on SHBG and FAI. Future studies with longer period of supplementation are warranted.
Farzaneh Dehghani, Ashraf Hassanpour, Aghdas Poost-Pasand, Ali Noorafshan, Saeid Karbalay-Doust,
Volume 11, Issue 9 (12-2013)

Background: Busulfan (Bus) is a chemotherapy drug that is widely used for cancer treatment. However, administration of busulfan may cause temporary or permanent sterility in male patients. Therefore, reduction of this side is necessary.
Objective: evaluation of the protective effects of L-carnitine and testis homogenized tissue (THT) on sperm parameters and the testis structure after busulfan treatment.
Materials and Methods: Twenty rats were divided four groups. Group I (Control) received a single dose of DMSO and 1mL of distilled water (I.P.). Group II (Bus) received a single of busulfan (10 mg/kg) plus 1 ml of the distilled water (I.P.). Group III (Bus+THT) received busulfan plus 1mL of THT daily by oral gavages. Group IV (Bus+L-car) received a single dose of busulfan plus 100 mg/kg/day L-carnitine (I.P.). After 48 dayst, the Stereological technique was used for the estimating volume and diameter of testis, seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue, flagella length, germinal epithelium height and spermatoginic cell number. Semen analysis was used for the assessment of sperm parameters.
Results: THT increased volume of testis (6.5%), seminiferous tubule and interstitial tissue volume (6.5%, 6.9% and 11.7% respectively), germinal epithelium height (13%), sperm count (7.5%), and decreased sperm with abnormal morphology (1%) in comparison with the L-carnitine in busulfan treated group.
Conclusion: It seems the use of L-carnitine and THT decreases side effects of busulfan on the male reproductive system. However, in our study, THT is more effective than L-carnitine and leads to the recovery testis structure and sperm parameters after treatment with busulfan.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Hoora Amouzegar, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)

Background: Preterm labor (PTL) is one of the most important causes in neonatal mortality and morbidity. Late preterm labor (34-36w) includes 75% of such birth. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnant women are at increased risk of PTL.
Objective: The study has been undertaken to determine whether beginning and continuing 17-α hydroxy progesterone caproate can reduce risk of PTL or change neonatal mortality.
Materials and Methods: In a double-blind clinical randomized control trial, 106 women were treated by ART technique for their infertility and in gestational age at 16 weeks entered in our study. In one group, 17-α hydroxy progesterone caproate (Femolife) was injected intramuscularly every week until 36 weeks of gestation and in another group; placebo was injected from 16 until 36 weeks of gestetion. Data collected from pregnancy outcomes, infancy, and subsidiary problems were statistically analyzed by a questionnaire.
Results: The risk of PTL in placebo group was 2.48 higher than control group that was not significant (Cl: 0.81-9.94). Femolife side effect in case group was gestational diabetes and local complication was not frequent. NICU admission was not significantly different between groups.
Conclusion: Although it seems that 17-α hydroxy progesterone caproate does not cause significantly decrease in PTL in singleton ART gestations but any reduction of PTL in such high risk pregnancies may improve final gestational outcome. There is critical need for larger clinical trials to better understanding causes of PTL, specifically late preterm labor, to prevent mortality and morbidity in ART gestation.
Mohammad-Hossein Razi, Fereshteh Mohseni, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Sima Janati, Nahid Yari, Sahabeh Etebary,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (2-2014)

Background: Based on classical two-cell, two-gonadotropin theory, in the follicle, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) put on their main effects on the granulosa and theca cells. LH is essential for androgens production. Androgens are used for estradiol production by granulosa cells. Profound suppression of LH concentrations in some normogonadotropic patients can cause several adverse effects.
Objective: The main clinical purpose of this study was that normoresponder women treated with controlled ovarian super ovulation for IVF or ICSI may benefit from co-administration of rLH.
Materials and Methods: 40 patients who were candidates for assisted reproductive technology (ART) were randomly selected. In all patients long luteal protocol was used for ovulation induction. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=20) with standard long protocol (GnRH agonist) and r-FSH alone, Group 2 (n=20) with standard long protocol (GnRH agonist) and r-FSH with r-LH. Results were statistically analyzed and compared in two groups.
Results: The number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, cleaved embryos, transferred embryos, estradiol levels in Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration day, implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate in group 2 were higher but not significantly different.
Conclusion: Administration of rLH in late follicular phase had no beneficial effect on outcomes in young women with mean age of 31 years. Maybe a greater sample size should be used to see the effects more accurately; also it is possible that rLH will be useful in older patients.
Mohammadreza Dehghani, Elena Rossi, Annalisa Vetro, Gianni Russo, Zahra Hashemian, Orsetta Zuffardi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: In most mammals, sex is determined at the beginning of gestation by the constitution of the sex chromosomes, XY in males and XX in females.
Case: Here we report an interesting case characterized by ambiguous genitalia and ovotestis in a newborn carrying an apparently female karyotype (46 XX). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) revealed an unbalanced rearrangement resulting in the deletion of the distal Xp and the duplication of the proximal Xp contiguous region with presence of the Y chromosome from Ypter to Yq11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this portion of the Y was translocated to the tip of the abnormal X and that the duplicated portion of chromosome X was inverted. Altogether, the abnormal chromosome was a dicentric one with the centromere of the Y chromosome apparently inactivated.
Conclusion: The presence within the translocated Y chromosome of the SRY gene explains the devolopment of testes although it is not clear the reason for the genitalia ambiguity.

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