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Samieh Karimi, Majid Yavarian, Azadeh Azinfar, Minoo Rajaei, Maryam Azizi Kootenaee,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Role of genetic factors in etiology of preeclampsia is not confirmed yet.
Objective: Gene defect frequency varies in different geographic areas as well as ethnic groups. In this study, the role of factor V Leiden mutation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia syndrome among the pregnant population of northern shore of Persian Gulf in Iran, were considered.
Materials and Methods: Between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009, in a nested case control study, pregnant women with preeclampsia (N=198) as cases and healthy (N=201) as controls were enrolled in the study. DNA were extracted from 10 CC peripheral blood and analyzed for presence of factor V Leiden mutation in these subjects. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy according to the distribution of factor V Leiden were also compared among cases.
Results: In total, 17(8.6%) of cases and 2(1%) of controls showed the factor V Leiden mutation. The incidence of factor V Leiden was typically higher in preeclamptic women than control group (OR: 9.34 %95 CI: 2.12-41.01). There was no difference in incidence rate of preterm delivery< 37 weeks (OR: 1.23 %95 CI: 0.38-4.02), very early preterm delivery<32 weeks (OR: 1.00 %95 CI: 0.12-8.46), intra uterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) (OR: 1.32 %95 CI: 0.15-11.30 ),and the rate of cesarean section (OR: 0.88 %95 CI: 0.29-2.62 ) among cases based on the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation.
Conclusion: The pregnant women with factor V Leiden mutation are prone for preeclampsia syndrome during pregnancy, but this risk factor was not correlated to pregnancy complications in the studied women. 
Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Ebrahim KharAzinejad, Laili Rohani, Zahra Vojdani, Zohreh Mostafavi Pour, Seyed Ziaadin Tabei,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Epigenetic reprogramming of differentiated cells can modify somatic cells into pluripotential state. Pluripotency can be induced in somatic cells by several approches. One of the easy ways to induce pluripotency is the exposure of the somatic cells to the embryonic stem cell (ESC) extract. Objective: The objective of this study was to increase the efficiency of reprogramming of granulosa cell as a differentiated cell into pluripotential state by using epigenetic modifier agents and extract.
Materials and Methods: The human granulosa cells were cultured in the medium containing 5-Aza-Deoxycytidine and trichostatin A. Then, the cells were exposed to mouse ESCs extract and co-cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Alkaline phosphatase test and also immonohistochemistery staining for Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog were performed after 24 and 72 hours and 1 week.
Results: The granulosa cells showed the alkaline phosphatase activity after 24 hours and the enzyme activity maintained for 72 hours. They also expressed Oct4 after 24 hours. The cells also expressed Sox2 and Nanog, 72 hours after exposure to the ESCs extract. The expression of the pluripotency markers decreased after 1 week. It seems that the extract can induce dedifferentiation in granulosa cells and they can express the stem cell markers. Conclusion:   It seems that the inhibitors of the methyl transferase (5-Aza-Deoxycytidine) and histone deacetylase (trichostatin A) could delete the epigenetic markers and prepare the cells for reprogramming by administration of the extract.
Zahra Karimian, Effat Merghati Khoei, Raziyeh Maasoumi, Marzieh Araban, Mahbube Rasolzade, Shahrokh Aghayan, Seied Ali Azin,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)
Abstract

Background: Iranian sexology researchers have emphasized the need for highquality scientific data on the dimensions of sexuality among adults, particularly withcultural considerations. Best practice and the delivery of sexual health services relyon rigorous facts extracted from surveys, but often those facts cannot be availabledue to the lack of culturally-sensitive questionnaires.
Objective: The aim of this study was to show the validity and reliability of thePersian version of the Acquisition of Sexual Information Test (ASIT), a measureselected due to its assemblages with Iranian culture.
Materials and Methods: Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the50 items-Acquisition of Sexual Information Test from English into Persian. Afterlinguistic validation, a cross-sectional study was carried out and psychometricproperties of the Iranian version of five-dimension questionnaire were tested in athirty sample of reproductive-age, married, healthy and sexually active women. Facevalidity was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Content validity wasalso assessed by calculating two quantitative indicators as content validity index(CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR). In the qualitative phase, experts assessed thequestionnaire from aspects such as wording, grammar, item allocation, and scaling.Reliability was assessed by test-retest analyses.
Results: Impact score was 1.5 in all questions. , the majority of participants (83.3%)stated that the overall level of content qualitative validity of the questionnaire for thetarget population was high but some of the questions were irrelevant to sexualknowledge such as questions in regard to sexual self-concept and human evolution.Many questions (90%) gained a CVR less than 0.56, and all of them gained CVIslower than 0.7. Correlation in test-retest reliability was 0.85 that was considered tobe acceptable.
Conclusion: Regardless of our initial assumptions about selecting the Acquisition ofSexual Information Test, the Persian version of sexual knowledge questionnaireseems to be culturally inappropriate for Iranian women. Although, we need surveydata for assessing the evidence-based needs for sexual health and best practice, butthe questions addressing various dimensions of sexuality such as knowledge must beculturally sensitive, comprehensive and appropriate. Our findings suggest that ASITas a well-known measure should be used in Iranian population with caution. It mustbe re-validated in different adult populations than that we selected in this study.
Zohreh Sadat, Fazlollah Ghofranipour, Seyed Ali Azin, Ali Montazeri, Azita Goshtasebi, Azam Bagheri, Elham Barati,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (January 2018)
Abstract

Background: Designing a valid and reliable questionnaire that allows a fair evaluation of sexual knowledge and attitudes and develop a proper sexual educational program is necessary.
Objective: The present study was designed to develop and psychometric evaluation of the sexual knowledge and attitudes scale for premarital couples.
Materials and Methods: An exploratory mixed method study was conducted in two phases; in the first, in order to develop a questionnaire an item pool was generated on sexual knowledge and attitudes through focus group discussions and individual interviews. In the second phase, the psychometric properties of the questionnaire were examined. For this purpose, face validity, content validity as well as construct validity were conducted. Reliability was assessed by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to assess internal consistency and test-retest reliability.
Results: In the first phase an item pool with 88 questions was generated (sexual knowledge 45 items and sexual attitudes 43 items). In the second phase, the number of final items reduced to 33 and 34 items of sexual knowledge and sexual attitudes respectively, through exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Five factors for sexual knowledge and six factors for sexual attitudes identified by EFA. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for two sections was 0.84 and 0.81 respectively. The test- retest correlations for sexual knowledge and sexual attitude was 0.74 and 0.82 respectively.
Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale for Premarital Couples is a valid and reliable instrument. Further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for the questionnaire.

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