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Showing 38 results for Azad

Behnaz Sheikholslami, Mojdeh Salehnia, Mojtaba RezAzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

The cytokine of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a glycoprotein, which is synthesized in the female reproductive tract and has embryonic trophic effect in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the optimal dosage of GM-CSF to improve the mouse embryo development in vitro. To collect two and eight cells embryos, the pregnant NMRI mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 48 h and 72 h post hCG injections, respectively. The embryos were cultured randomlly in T6 medium supplemented with 5 mg /ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0, 2, and 10 ng / ml human rGM-CSF. The data of blastocyst formation and hatching in different groups of embryo culture were compared by chi-square analysis. The results showed that the developmental rates of 2 and 8 cells embryos to hatching blastocyst in the presence of 2 ng/ml of GM-CSF their control groups (51.5% and 49.7%, respectively) were more than those in the other groups, but insignificant. It seems more researches are necessary to confirm this suggestion that the GM-CSF with 2 ng/ml concentration may have a better potential, not only to enhance the developmental rates of 2 and 8 cells embryos but also for decreasing the degeneration of those embryos.
Mohammad Ghafourzadeh, Mojgan Karimi, Mohammad Ali KarimAzadeh, Mahshid Bokai,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)

Background: Infertility affects about 10-15% of reproductive-age couples. About half the causes of infertility are female related and approximately 40% of the cases are caused by anovulation, mostly in PCO women. Objective: This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of two drug treatment regimens: higher dose of clomiphene and a combination of lower dose of clomiphene and tamoxifen in treating infertile women with PCO. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 100 infertile patients who referred to Yazd-Iran Infertility Clinic between the years 2001-2003. The patients were selected who had received at least 3 periods of clomiphene, but no pregnancy had occurred. They were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, clomiphene was increased to 100 mg and the second group 20 mg of tamoxifen was added to 50 mg of clomiphene from day 5-9 of menstruation cycle. Infertility duration, duration of medicine used, PCT score, endometrial thickness, ovulation, and pregnancy rate were studied in both groups. Results: Ovulation rate in clomiphene group was 54.9%; Tamoxifen + clomiphene group was 73.5% without significant differences in both groups. (PV = 0.053). Positive pregnancy rate in clomiphene group was 39.2%; clomiphene + tamoxifen group was 61.2% (P value < 0.05), which could be concluded that pregnancy rate was higher in clomiphene/tamoxifen group than in the clomiphene group. The presence of a dominant follicle in the two treatment groups in women between 18-24 was not significant, but in women between 25-39 years was significant (PV= 0.049) (Table III). Conclusion: The recommendation is to add Tamoxifen to Clomiphene in 35-39 women with 20? BMI ?26.99 before the use of gonadotropins treatment in PCOS with or without IUI, because these options have higher risk of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Article
Azadeh Montaserti, Maryam Pourheydar, Mozafar Khazaei, Rostam Ghorbani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background: Physalis alkekengi (P. alkekengi)has been used as an abortive plant in Iranian traditional medicine for many years.
Objective: To investigate the effects of P.alkekengi on the fertility rate in female rats.
Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats were divided randomly into two groups; group 1/for investigating the implantation sites and group 2/ for investigating the number and weight of neonates. In both groups, treated animals received plant extract at dose of 150 mg/kg on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In group 1, treated animals were euthanized at 7th days of pregnancy and number of implantation sites were counted. In group 2, treated animals maintained till delivery time and after delivery, the number and weight of neonates were investigated.
Results: Data showed that administration of P. alkekengi extract on days 1-5 of pregnancy significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number and weight of neonates.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the extract produced anti- fertility effect probably by inhibiting implantation.
Fatemeh Peyghambari, Mojdeh Salehnia, Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam, Mojtaba RezAzadeh Valujerdi, Ebrahim Hajizadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (7-2008)

Background: The preparation of endometrium for embryo reception and implantation are controlled by ovarian hormones. These hormones have distinct cyclical changes during estrus cycle.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in morphology and morphometrical indices of endometrium by daily injections of estrogen and progesterone in ovariectomized mouse.
Materials and Methods: In total 60 adult NMRI female mice were ovariectomized and after two weeks, they were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham group, estrogen treated mice (which received daily dosage of 0.5 ml/mouse of hormone for five days), progesterone treated mice (which received daily dosage of 0.2 ml/mouse of progesterone hormone for five days) and estrogen-progesterone treated mice (they received 0.5 ml/mouse estrogen on the first day and 0.2 ml/mouse progesterone injections from the second day to the fifth day of treatment). The mice were sacrificed in every day (n=5) up to five days after treatment and their uterine horns were obtained and processed for morphological and morphometrical studies.
Results: On the second day of treatment, the diameter of glands was observed to be more in the progesterone group (53.75±6.32μ) than this in the estrogen (45.13±7.78 μ) and estrogen-progesterone treated groups (48.17±13.58 μ). While, the number of glands (76.25±17.37) and thickness of endometrium (39.58±3.37 μ) were observed to be more in the estrogen treated group (p=0.01).
Conclusion: Progesterone had effect on the gland whereas estrogen caused increased in height of surface epithelium of endometrium. Overall, the day 2 after treatment (in all experimental groups) is suitable day for sampling for further studies.
Kamran Haidari, Mojdeh Salehnia, Mojtaba RezAzadeh Valojerdi, Shahram Pourbyranvand,
Volume 6, Issue 5 (7-2008)

Background: The ultrastructural analysis of cultured follicles could direct us to understand subcellular changes during in vitro culture.
Objective: This study was done to verify the ultrastructural characteristics of in vitro cultured mouse isolated preantral follicles in co-culture system in the presence and absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)
Materials and Methods: Mechanically isolated preantral follicles were divided into four groups: control without LIF, control with LIF, co-cultured group with LIF, co-cultured group without LIF. In co-culture groups the follicles were cultured with cumulus cells. After 4 days the follicles were processed and sectioned for transmission electron microscopic examination.
Results: The oocytes of cultured preantral follicles in all studied groups demonstrated a homogeneous cytoplasm and they had the round or ovoid shaped mitochondria with light matrix and cristae. Their endoplasmic reticulum cisternae were in association with mitochondria and Golgi complex. The cortical granules and the aggregation of mitochondria around the germinal vesicle were prominent in both co-cultured groups. The organelle distribution in granulosa cells was normal in all groups of study and no sign of cell death was observed. In both co-cultured systems the granulosa cells contained mitochondria with tubular cristae, a well developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum and several large lipid droplets, characteristics of steroid synthesis cells. Conclusion: The oocyte and granulosa cells in co-cultured system showed more remarkable maturation features than that of control.
Arash Khaki, Fatemeh FathiAzad, Mohammad Nouri, Amir Afshin Khaki, Chelar C Ozanci, Marefat Ghafari-Novin, Mohammad Hamadeh,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (7-2009)

Background: Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale R., family: Zingiberaceae) is used medicinally and as a culinary spice.
Objective: Medicinal use of ginger dates back to ancient China and India. Ginger and its constituents are stated to have antiemetic, antithrombotic, antihepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory, stimulant, cholagogue and antioxidant. It has been used since ancient time as medicinal and food origins it contain antioxidative and androgenic activities and have well effect in diseases treatment in more countries world-wide. As an antioxidant’s ginger has a useful effect on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters.
Materials and Methods: Wistar male rat (n=30) were allocated into three groups, control (n=10) and test groups (n=20), that subdivided into groups of 2 that received ginger rhizome powder (50 and 100mg/kg/day) for 20 consequence day. Animals were kept in standard conditions. In twentieth day the testes tissue of Rats in whole groups were removed and sperm was collected from epididymis and prepared for analysis.
Results: Serum total testosterones significantly increased in experimental group that has received 100 mg/kg/day Ginger (p<0.05) in comparison to control group. Besides, the percentage of sperm viability and motility in both test groups significantly increased (p<0.05) in comparison to control group, Whereas, LH, FSH hormones, sperm concentration, morphology and testes weights in both experimental and control group were similar.
Conclusion: Results revealed that administration of 100 mg/kg/day of ginger significantly increased sperm percentage, viability, motility and serum total testosterones. This suggested that ginger may be promising in enhancing sperm healthy parameters.
Fattaneh Farifteh, Marzieh Mehrafza, Mona Oudi, Azadeh Eftekhari, Maryam Rahnavard, Khatereh Barjasteh, Ahmad Hossieni,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2009)

Background: Embryo transfer (ET) has traditionally been performed two days after oocyte retrieval. Delaying transfer from day two to day three or four would allow for further development of the embryo might therefore optimize the selection of viable and best quality embryos for transfer and may be closer to the physiological time of the entry into the uterus than transfer on day two and might have a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes.
Objective: The study aimed to determine whether delayed transfer of embryos from 2 to 3 or 4 days after oocyte retrieval and the pregnancy rate in ICSI (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection) procedure.
Materials and Methods: In this deh1ive study we evaluated infertile couples who were referred to the Mehr Infertility Institute between 2006 and 2008 for ICSI according to the day of embryo transfer. We compared embryo quality pregnancy rate and implantation rate among day 2 3 or 4 of transfers. Pregnancy rate was confirmed by measurement of β-hCG in serum after 14 days. After data collection analysis was carried out with the t-test and chi squared tests by using the statistical software package SPSS.16.
Results: The overall clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) reported was 46.6%. The mean age of women and duration of infertility didn,t differ on the day of embryo transfer (p>0.05). Overall CPRs were not statistically different for day 2 (50.3%) day 3 (46.5%) and day 4 (34.8%) transfers respectively there were no significant differences in the age of transferred embryos between pregnant and nonpregnant women (p>0.05).
Conclusion: From the result of the present study there were no statistically significant differences in pregnancy rates according to the day of embryo transfer.
Samieh Karimi, Majid Yavarian, Azadeh Azinfar, Minoo Rajaei, Maryam Azizi Kootenaee,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)

Background: Role of genetic factors in etiology of preeclampsia is not confirmed yet.
Objective: Gene defect frequency varies in different geographic areas as well as ethnic groups. In this study, the role of factor V Leiden mutation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia syndrome among the pregnant population of northern shore of Persian Gulf in Iran, were considered.
Materials and Methods: Between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009, in a nested case control study, pregnant women with preeclampsia (N=198) as cases and healthy (N=201) as controls were enrolled in the study. DNA were extracted from 10 CC peripheral blood and analyzed for presence of factor V Leiden mutation in these subjects. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy according to the distribution of factor V Leiden were also compared among cases.
Results: In total, 17(8.6%) of cases and 2(1%) of controls showed the factor V Leiden mutation. The incidence of factor V Leiden was typically higher in preeclamptic women than control group (OR: 9.34 %95 CI: 2.12-41.01). There was no difference in incidence rate of preterm delivery< 37 weeks (OR: 1.23 %95 CI: 0.38-4.02), very early preterm delivery<32 weeks (OR: 1.00 %95 CI: 0.12-8.46), intra uterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) (OR: 1.32 %95 CI: 0.15-11.30 ),and the rate of cesarean section (OR: 0.88 %95 CI: 0.29-2.62 ) among cases based on the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation.
Conclusion: The pregnant women with factor V Leiden mutation are prone for preeclampsia syndrome during pregnancy, but this risk factor was not correlated to pregnancy complications in the studied women. 
Zahra Rashidi, Mehri Azadbakht, Mozafar Khazaei,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: Cryopreservation has limited successes and in-vitro maturation is used to improve its results. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) plays an important role in follicular development.
Objective: This study was designed to examine the effects of HP on in-vitro maturation of oocytes and cell death in cumulus cells derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries.
Materials and Methods: Preovulatory follicles were harvested from non-vitrified and vitrified-warmed 6-8 week-old female NMRI mouse ovaries and randomly assigned to following groups: non-vitrified (control), non-vitrified with HP exposure (treatment I), vitrified-warmed (treatment II) and vitrified-warmed with HP exposure (treatment III). The follicles of treatments I and III were subjected to HP (20 mmHg) for 30 min and after that all groups were cultured for 24h and assessed for in-vitro maturation of oocytes. The viability and apoptosis of cumulus cells and oocytes were assessed using supravital nuclear staining and TUNEL assay, respectively.
Results: Oocytes harvested follicles in both control and treatment II had a significantly lower percentage of metaphase II oocytes (MII) than the treatment I and III (23.5±3.1, 15.03±4.6 and 32.7±3.2, 25.5±4.6; respectively) (p<0.05). Viability of the cumulus cells reduced in treatment I, II and III (83.4, 83.3 and 77.7%) compared to control (86.9%), (p<0.05). The apoptotic index in cumulus and oocyte complexes in treatments I and III (10.7±0.8 and 15.3±0.8) was higher than in control and treatment II (6.7±0.5 and 9.7±0.5) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that HP had a mild effect on cell death incidence in cumulus cells without any effect on oocyte. However, it can be used as a mechanical force to improve in-vitro maturation of oocytes derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries.

Farhad Golshan Iranpour, Mojtaba RezAzadeh Valojerdi,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (5-2013)

Background: When male animals die, spermatozoa within the body of animal will be degenerated. Because of unique chromatin structure of sperm, maybe this degeneration is different from other cells. However there is not any research which considered directly the integrity of sperm DNA by keeping the cadaver in refrigerator.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess viability, total motility and DNA integrity of sperm cells after death.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Swiss white mice were killed by cervical dislocation and then kept in refrigerator (4-6oC) for up to 12 days. On the 0 (immediately after death as control group), 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th and the 12th days after death cauda epididymides were removed and squeezed in Ham’s F10 medium. The proportion of viable, motile and double stranded DNA spermatozoa was examined. Viability and DNA integrity of sperm cells were examined consecutively by eosin nigrosin and acridine orange stainings.
Results: The data obtained from this study showed that viability and total motility of sperm cells were significantly decreased during 12 days after death (p<0.001). In contrast with viability and motility, DNA integrity was without significant changes (even 12 days after death).
Conclusion: This study suggests that integrity of sperm DNA would not change even after 12 days after death if the cadaver kept in refrigerator.
Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Niloofar Vaziri, Hoorieh Daneshbodi, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: There is some evidence regarding the effect of poly unsaturated fatty acid intake on androgen levels and gonadal function in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effect of omega-3 supplementation on sex hormone-binding protein (SHBG), testosterone, free androgen index (FAI) and menstrual status in women with PCOS.
Materials and Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 78 overweight/obese women with PCOS. Participants were randomized to receive omega-3 (3gr/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. Data about weight, height and nutrient intake as well as blood samples were collected before and after intervention. Serum concentrations of testosterone (nmol/L) and SHBG (nmol/L) were measured. FAI was also calculated as the ratio of testosterone to SHBG.
Results: Seventy eight patients (age: 26.92±5.46 yrs, Body Mass Index: 31.69±4.84 Kg/m2) completed the study. There was no significant difference in mean age, weight, height, Body Mass Index and intake of energy, and macronutrients between 2 study groups before and after treatment. All the participants had irregular periods. After the trial the percentage of regular menstruation in the omega-3 group was more than the placebo group (47.2% vs. 22.9%, p=0.049). Furthermore, testosterone concentration was significantly lower in the omega-3 group compared with placebo, after supplementation (p=0.04). SHBG and FAI did not change in either group.
Conclusion: Omega-3 supplementation could reduce serum concentrations of testosterone and regulate menstrual cycle without significant effect on SHBG and FAI. Future studies with longer period of supplementation are warranted.
Morteza MolAzadeh, Hadi Karimzadeh, Mohammad R Azizi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in women with recurrent miscarriage have been reported. The presence of moderate to high titers of these antibodies represents an autoimmune condition that can endanger the health of the fetus in pregnant women.
Objective: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of ANAs in Iranian women with a history of two or more unexplained abortion.
Materials and Methods: 560 women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage and 560 healthy controls accounted for this study over a period of 13 months. ANAs were detected by indirect immunofluorescence technique.
Results: ANAs were detected in 74 of 560 (13.21%) patient with recurrent miscarriage, and in only 5 of 560 (0.9%) controls (p<0.001). ANA positivity was generally found with low-positive results (1.40-1.80) in about 38% of positive cases, whereas moderate titres (1.160-1.320) and high titres (>1.640) were seen in about 46% and 16% of cases respectively. Finally evaluating of microscopic ANA patterns revealed that about half of positive cases had antibodies against DNA- histone complex, associated with systemic lupus erythematosus disease.
Conclusion: Antinuclear antibodies are not uncommon in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, suggesting the possible role of an autoimmune disorder on abortion, at least in a subgroup of patients.
Afsoon Zarei, Saeed Alborzi, Nasrin Dadras, Ghazal Azadi,
Volume 12, Issue 9 (10-2014)

Background: Implantation is considered as the rate-limiting step in success of assisted reproduction techniques, and intrauterine insemination cycles. It might be affected by ovarian superovulation and endometrial local scratching.
Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of local endometrial injury on the outcome of IUI cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 144 women with unexplained infertility, mild male factor, and mild endometriosis randomly divided into two study groups through block randomization. The patients were randomly assigned to undergo endometrial biopsy between days 6-8 of the previous menstrual cycle before IUI (n=72, IUI cycles =126) or receive no interventions (n=72, IUI cycles=105).
Results: The pregnancy rate per patient was 17 (23.6%) and 14 (19.4%) in endometrial biopsy and control groups, respectively (p=0.686). The pregnancy rate per cycle was 17/126 (13.5%) and 14/105 (13.3%) in endometrial biopsy and control groups, respectively (p=0.389). The abortion rate was comparable between the two groups (6.9% vs. 9.7%; p=0.764). The ongoing pregnancy rate was found to be comparable between the two study groups, as well (16.7% vs. 9.7%; p=0.325). Endometrial thickness (p=0.609) was comparable between the groups; however ER2R was significantly lower in the endometrial biopsy group (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Application of local endometrial injury in the cycle before the IUI cycles is not associated with increased pregnancy rate per patient and per cycle, decreased abortion, and increased endometrial thickness.
Fouad Mehraban, Mehrzad Jafari, Mehdi Akbartabar Toori, Hossein Sadeghi, Behzad Joodi, Mostafa MostafAzade, Heibatollah Sadeghi,
Volume 12, Issue 10 (11-2014)

Background: Date Palm Pollen (DPP) and Astragalus genus are used in some countries for the treatment of infertility.
Objective: This study was designed to investigate effects of DPP and Astragalus ovinus (A.Ovinus) on fertility in healthy adult male rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-six rats were divided into six groups (n=6) including control and five treatment groups. DPP (120, 240 and 360 mg/kg) and A.ovinus (100, 500 mg/ kg) were orally given to the treatment groups. After thirty-five days, blood samples were taken to determine serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol. Weight of testis and epididymis, sperm count, sperm motility, seminiferous tubules diameter (STD), germinal cell layer thickness (GCLT), sertoli, leydig and spermatogonia cells were also evaluated.
Results: DPP at the of 120 and 240 mg/kg doses significantly raised the ratio of testis or epididymis to body weight, sperm count, sperm motility , and estradiol level compared to the control group (p<0.05). LH and testosterone levels only noticeably increased at 120 mg/kg of DPP (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively). STD increased in the three applied doses (p=0.001). A. ovinus extract at the indicated doses produced a significant reduction in the ratio of testis or epididymis to body weight and sperm motility (p<0.05). Sperm count, spermatogonia, leydig cells and FSH level decreased at dose of 500 mg/kg. Furthermore, GCLT, spermatogonia cells, and serum estradiol level increased at 100 mg/kg dose of A. ovinus.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that DPP could improve fertility factors, while A.ovinus can exhibit deleterious effects on gonad and sperm parameters in rats.
Nasrin Saharkhiz, Azadeh Akbari Sene, Saghar Salehpour, Maryam Tamimi, Masoumeh Vasheghani Farahani, Kourosh Sheibani,
Volume 12, Issue 10 (11-2014)

Background: The beneficial role of cabergoline as a prophylactic agent to prevent ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) among high-risk patients has been demonstrated in previous studies. But data for its role as a treatment for established severe OHSS is still limited. We represent the treatment results of high dose oral cabergoline in management of six patients after the syndrome is established.
Case: High-dose oral cabergoline (1 mg daily for eight days) was prescribed as an adjuvant to symptomatic treatment for six hospitalized patients with established severe OHSS following infertility treatment cycles. In two cases OHSS resolved rapidly despite the occurrence of ongoing pregnancy.
Conclusion: Considering the treatment outcomes of our patients, high dose cabergoline did not eliminate the need for traditional treatments, but it was a relatively effective and safe therapy in management of established severe OHSS, and prevented the increase in its severity following the occurrence of pregnancy.
Masoud Mobini, Sakineh Mirzaie, Hossein KhorramdelAzad, Nahid Zainodini, Zahra Sabzali, Mina Ghyasi, Mitra Mokhtari, Reza Bahramabadi, Hamid Hakimi, Khodayar Ghorban, Maryam Dadmanesh, Vahid Ehsani, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi,
Volume 13, Issue 6 (8-2015)

Background: It has been documented that cytokines play important roles in the induction of normal functions of the placenta. It has been hypothesized that abnormal expression of the cytokines may be associated with unsuccessful pregnancy.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and tumor growth factor (TGF-ß) in pre-term, term neonates, and their corresponding mothers.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 100 term and 60 pre-term neonates, and also on their corresponded mothers. Serum levels of IL-17A and TGF-ß were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Our results revealed that the serum levels of IL-17A were significantly decreased in pre-term neonates in comparison to full-term neonates. However, the serum levels of IL-17A in the mothers either with pre-term or full-term neonates were not different. Also the serum levels of TGF-ß were not changed in pre-term neonates and their mothers when compared with full-term neonates and their mothers, respectively.
Conclusion: Based on these findings, it can be concluded that IL-17A may play crucial roles in induction of normal pregnancies and also probably participates in normal growth of fetus.
Fariba Mirbolouk, Azadeh Yousefnezhad, Atefeh Ghanbari,
Volume 13, Issue 6 (8-2015)

Background: Nowadays, The first step in treatment of ectopic pregnancy (EP) is medical treatment. Medical treatment with methotrexate (MTX) for EP is safe and effective method without the risks associated with the surgical procedure. But there are controversies between studies for which patients will respond better to medical treatment.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive factors of success or failure of treatment of EP with single dose MTX.
Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, records of 370 patients who were treated for tubal EP with single dose of MTX were reviewed during four years. Patients were divided into two groups; the first group or “success group” are the patients who were successfully treated with MTX. The second group or “failure group” consist the patients who did not respond to the MTX therapy. The week of gestation, size and location of EP and ß-hCG level were compared between groups.
Results: Of 370 patients, 285 (77.1%) were successfully treated with MTX. 85 patients (22.9%) required surgery after a mean of 5.4 (range 2-15) days. Day-1 beta- human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) and fall in ß-hCG between day 1 and day 4 were the best predictors for single dose MTX treatment success. The cutoff value of initial ß-hCG with the success treatment results was found to be 1375 IU/mL there was no statistical difference between groups about week of gestation, size and location of EP.
Conclusion: The results showed that patients who have ß-hCG levels below 1375 and the number of cases with decreasing ß-hCG level on day 4 are the good candidates for medical treatment.
Laya Farzadi, Homa Khayatzadeh Bidgoli, Morteza GhojAzadeh, Zahra Bahrami, Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Mohammad Nouri,
Volume 13, Issue 6 (8-2015)

Background: Vitamin D in complex with its receptor by regulating gene expression, endometrium immune response and stimulation of endometrium decidualization can be involved in implantation. So, it seems that the amount of vitamin D in follicular fluids (FF) may have an association with ART success.
Objective: First, we intended to investigate the possible association between levels of follicular fluids 25-OH vitamin D with assisted reproductive outcomes. Second, we examined relationship between 25-OH vitamin D levels with number and quality of oocytes.
Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, 80 infertile female candidates for IVF/ICSI were enrolled. Blood samples (on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration) and follicular fluids were taken, and then levels of serum estradiol and follicular fluids 25-OH vitamin D were measured. Also clinical characteristics of patients (duration of infertility, causes of infertility, menstrual status), number and quality of oocytes, number of fertilized oocytes, estradiol levels, and clinical pregnancy were evaluated.
Results: Concentration of FF 25-OH vitamin D in pregnant women was significantly higher than non-pregnant women (p=0.007) but there were no significant differences in age, body mass index (BMI), duration of infertility, menstrual status, number of oocytes, oocytes quality, number of fertilized oocytes, and serum estradiol levels between the two groups. Statistically positive correlation was found between 25-OH vitamin D levels with patient age and implantation rate (r=0.264, p=0.018 and r=0.301, p=0.007 respectively).
Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that vitamin D without affecting the number and quality of oocytes can independently improve implantation rate and IVF outcome.
Sara Soleimani Rad, Shamsi Abbasalizadeh, Amir Ghorbani Haghjo, Mehzad Sadagheyani, Azadeh Montaseri, Jafar Soleimani Rad,
Volume 13, Issue 7 (9-2015)

Background: Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a complex issue and different factors such as stress oxidative can be involved in this problem. So, any attempt to neutralize oxidative stress would be helpful in the treatment of infertility. Melatonin is a known scavenger of free radicals.
Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of melatonin and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in fertile and infertile women.
Materials and Methods: The participants including fertile and infertile women were divided into two groups of 30 people. Blood sampling was performed and sera were collected. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and melatonin were detected. Data were analyzed using T-test and their correlation was assessed using Spearman test.
Results: Serum melatonin from fertile women was higher than infertile women but the difference was not significant (p= 0.46). MDA level in fertile women was significantly lower than infertile women (p<0.001) and the level of TAC in fertile women was significantly higher than infertile women (p<0.001). Spearman test revealed a significant and direct correlation between melatonin and TAC in fertile and infertile women and a significant but reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA in infertile and fertile women.
Conclusion: Differences in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in fertile and infertile individuals have been reported. This study revealed a significant correlation between melatonin and oxidative stress biomarkers, concluding that melatonin level could be involved in infertility.
Maryam Shahhoseini, Mahnaz Azad, Marjan Sabbaghian, Maryam Shafipour, Mohammad Reza Akhoond, Reza Salman Yazdi, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Hamid Gourabi,
Volume 13, Issue 8 (9-2015)

Background: Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder, which affects approximately 10% of couples at childbearing age with substantial clinical and social impact. Genetic factors are associated with the susceptibility to spermatogenic impairment in humans. Recently, SEPT12 is reported as a critical gene for spermatogenesis. This gene encodes a testis specific member of Septin proteins, a family of polymerizing GTP-binding proteins. SEPT12 in association with other Septins is an essential annulus component in mature sperm. So, it is hypothesized that genetic alterations of SEPT12 may be concerned in male infertility.
Objective: The objective of this research is exploration of new single nucleotide polymorphism G5508A in the SEPT12 gene association with idiopathic male infertility in Iranian men.
Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 67 infertile men and 100 normal controls were analyzed for genetic alterations in the active site coding region of SEPT12, using polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: Genotype analysis indicated that G5508A polymorphic SEPT12 alleles were distributed in three peaks of frequency in both control and diseases groups. Categorization of the alleles into (GG), (GA), (AA) types revealed a significant difference between infertile patients (azoospermic and asthenospermic) and normal controls (p=0.005).
Conclusion: According to our finding we suggest that G5508A polymorphism in SEPT12 gene can affect spermatogenesis in men, the opinion needs more investigation in different populations.

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