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Showing 13 results for Anvari

Mohammad Ali Khalili, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background: Research studies on reproductive mechanism of laboratory animals are essential for further advancement of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). One of these studies includes the assessment of in-vitro development of pre-implantation embryos. The objective was to compare the cleavage rates and morphology of in-vivo formed 2 to 8 cell embryos and blastocysts with in-vitro culture of the same embryos for 24 h.
Materials and Methods: 6-8 weeks old female NMRI mice were superovulated with 8IU pregnant marechr('39')s serum gonadotropin (PMSG, ip). Two superovulated animals were caged with one male mouse for mating. Mated mice were killed by cervical dislocation at different time intervals to collect a total of 200 (50/ each) 2, 4, 8, and blastocyst embryos from uterine tubes and horns. Following morphological evaluation and cleavage rates, all embryos were incubated in Whittinghamchr('39')s T6 media+5% BSA for 24 h. Following incubation at 37ºC in 5% CO2, the cleavage rates as well as morphological feature of each embryo was re-evaluated and compared with the original embryos.
Results: The best quality embryos collected from uterine tubes were at 2-cells stage, which were reduced when compared with in-vivo developed 4-8 cells embryos. 88% and 52% of 2 and 8 cells embryos were respectively at grade A stage.  28 embryos out of 50 eight-cell embryos were at grades C and D after incubation. Following in vitro culture, the development of 16%, 24%, 24%, and 40% of the 2, 4, 8 cells, and blastocysts were arrested, respectively. Also, only 2 blastocysts (8%) reached the hatching stage which in comparison with in-vivo blstocysts were increased (P>0.05).
Conclusion: In-vitro culture of the in-vivo formed embryos reduced their cleavage rates and morphology, especially at more advanced stages. Therefore, it becomes necessary to improve the in-vitro culture condition and to transfer the embryos at early stage to consequently improve the implantation rates.
Ali Reza Talebi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Hossein Nahangi, Abulghasem Abbasi, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men at the peak of their reproductive health. Only 10% of SCI men can father children without medical assistance due to potential impairments in ejaculation and sperm quality.
Objective: The main objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the epididymal necrospermia- sperm death, after chronic SCI in rat.
Materials and Methods: Forty-five adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of SCI, sham, and control. Following laminectomy, SCI was induced onto exposed dura matter (T10) of anesthetized rats. Sham group underwent laminectomy of T10 only; while, control rats were not exposed to any type of injury or medication. The spermatozoa from cauda epididymis were aspirated after 50 days for analysis of necrospermia with three assays of Eosin-Y staining, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS), and Hoechst 33258 fluorescent dye.
Results: The rate of necrospermia in SCI rats was significantly increased when compared with other groups (p<0.05). Also, the rates of necrspermia in SCI samples were similar with application of 3 assays (Eosin-Y: 46.11±9.41; HOS: 45.88±8.89; Hoechst: 46.76±9.31). Total necrospermia was not observed in any of the epididymal samples.
Conclusion: The results showed that chronic SCI is associated with high rate of epididymal necrospermia in mammals such as rats. It is, therefore, recommended that an effective laboratory technique, such as Hoechst 33258 should be used for separation of live and motile sperms from necrospermic ones for assisted reproduction program.
Houshang Babolhavaeji, Seyed Habibollah Mousavi Bahar, Nahid Anvari, Farhang Abed, Arash Roshanpour,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Many azoospermic patients with non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are candidate for testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and in vitro fertilization. Because sperm might be present in some but not all parts of the testes of such men, multiple sampling of testicular tissue are usually necessary to increase the probability of sperm finding. Sperm finding can be done by two methods: 1) classic histopathology and 2) wet smear.
Objective: Comparative study of pathology and wet smear methods for discovering sperm in testis biopsy of azoospermic men.
Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 67 consecutive infertile men who referred to Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, Iran between April 2002 and September 2004. All patients were either azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic. They underwent intraoperative wet prep cytological examinations of testis biopsy material and then specimens were permanently fixed for pathologic examination too.
Results: Among the 67 testes that underwent wet prep cytological examination, 44 (65.7%) were positive and 23 (34.3%) had no sperm in their wet smear. On the permanent pathologic sections, 19 (28.4%) were positive and 48 (71.6%) cases were with no sperm in their sections. Among all the individuals 18 (26.8%) were negative in both studies, while 14 (20.8%) had minimum 1 sperm in their smears in both examinations. The positive cases in wet prep cytological examination were significantly more than the cases in the permanent histopathologic sections (p-value=0.000).
Conclusion: It seems that wet prep cytological examination is more reliable than permanent histopathologic sections in detecting sperm in testis biopsy of azoospermic men.
Aisha Javed, Saeed Rezaei-Zarchi, Morteza Anvari, Madiha Javeed Ghani, Fatemeh Barzegari Firouzabadi, Amer Jamil, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Habibollah Nazem,
Volume 6, Issue 5 (7-2008)

Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes reduces the costs and averts the side-effects of gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Reliable IVM is an intellectual, scientific and clinical challenge with a number of potential applications.
Objective: The effect of hCG was evaluated on the timing and regulation of in vitro ovulation for the Syrian mice oocytes in the presence and absence of FSH. 
Materials and Methods: Preantral follicles, isolated from the ovaries of 6 weeks-old mice, were cultured in TCM-199 medium. The effect of 10-200 mIU/ml FSH and 1.5 IU/ml hCG was seen on the follicle maturation, as well as the changes in ovulation capacity of enclosed oocytes, after the incubation period of 6 days at 37 °C, 92% humidity and 5% CO2 in air.
Results: 100 mIU/ml FSH showed increased follicle diameter, survival, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and oocyte maturation rates (p<0.0001). Significantly higher number of follicles showed cumulus attachment when ovulation started within 16-24 hours post hCG (97% and 80% respectively; p<0.0001) as compared to the cultures without hCG or when the ovulation time increased from 24 hours post hCG. Combination of FSH and hCG showed 97% (p<0.0001) ovulation as compared to that seen for FSH-containing medium only (81%) or control (10%).
Conclusion: The combined administration of 1.5 IU/ml hCG and 100 mIU/ml FSH induces the in vitro follicle maturation, ovulation capacity and proper timing of mice oocytes. 
Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Ali Noorafshan, Ahmad Hamta, Hamid Reza Momeni, Mohammad Hussein Abnosi, Monireh Mahmoodi, Morteza Anvari, Maryam Hazaveh,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) is one of the environmental pollutants which cause reproductive system disorders.
Objective: The effects of vitamin E on ovary structure during its development in rats treated with p-NP.
Materials and Methods: 32 Wistar female rats after mating were divided into 4 groups; control vitamin E (100mg/kg/day) p-NP (250mg/kg/day) and p-NP + vitamin E. The rats were treated from the day 7 of pregnancy till 21st day of postnatal through sucking period. After weaning the female pups were treated by gavages for 120 days. The total volume of ovary number of follicles volume of oocyte follicular cells and their nuclei and the thickness of zona pellucida were estimated stereologically. The results were analyzed using one way ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The ovary weight, mean total volume of ovary and cortex, number of antral and graafian follicles and body weight were decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the p-NP treated rats compared to control and other groups, while the number of atretic follicles was increased significantly (p<0.05). A significant reduction (p<0.05) in volume of oocyte, follicular cells and their nuclei in antral and graafian follicles was found in p-NP group. In addition, treatment with only vitamin E showed an improving effect on folliculogenesis due to a highly significant increase (p<0.01) in the number of primordial follicles.
Conclusion: Vitamin E could compensate the adverse effects of p-NP on the ovary structure during its development.
Esmat Mangoli, Ali Reza Talebi, Morteza Anvari, Majid Pourentezari,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM), primary or idiopathic is a chronic disorder of the carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. DM may impact male reproductive function at several levels. It is shown that DM has detrimental effects on sperm parameters in human and experimental animals.
Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of diabetes on sperm parameters (viability, count, morphology and motility) and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality in mice.
Materials and Methods: Totally twenty adult male Syrian mice were divided randomly into 2 groups (n=10). The animals of group A were considered as controls while group B mice were diabetic that received a single dose (200 mg/kg) streptozotocin (STZ) intra peritoneally. After 35 days, the cauda epididymis of each diabetic mouse was dissected and placed in culture medium for 30 min. The swim-out spermatozoa were analyzed for count, motility, morphology and viability. The sperm chromatin quality and DNA integrity, was evaluated with Aniline Blue (AB), Toluidine blue (TB), Acridine orange (AO) and Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining.
Results: In sperm analysis, the diabetic mice had poor parameters in comparison with control animals (p=0.000). Regarding sperm chromatin quality, the results of TB and AO tests showed statically significant differences between two groups, but in AB and CMA3 staining, we didn’t see any differences between them.
Conclusion: The results showed that STZ-induced diabetes mellitus may influence the male fertility potential via affecting sperm parameters and DNA integrity in mice. However, according to our data, the diabetes doesn’t have any detrimental effects on histone-protamines replacement during the testicular phase of sperm chromatin packaging.
Mohammad Ebrahim Baki, Sayyed Mohsen Miresmaili, Majid Pourentezari, Esmail Amraii, Vahid Yousefi, Hamid Reza Spenani, Ali Reza Talebi, Morteza Anvari, Mohammad Fazilati, Ali Asghar Fallah, Esmat Mangoli,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (2-2014)

Background: Nano-particles are extensively employed in most industries. Several studies have been started to explore the probable detrimental effects of nano-particles on human reproduction. However, there is insufficient and controversially evident of effects of silver nano-particles on sperm parameters and other reproductive indices.
Objective: Investigation of the effects of silver nano-particles on sperm parameters, sex hormones and Leydig cells in rat as an experimental model.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 75 male prepubertal Wistar rats were categorized in five groups including control group and 4 experimental groups (n=15 in each group). The rats in the experimental groups were fed silver nano-particles (60 nm in dimension) with concentrations of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day. After 45 days (about one duration of spermatogenesis in rat), samples of blood were taken from the rats for testosterone, leuteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) assessments. Afterwards, the epididymis and the testis of each rat were dissected for analyzing sperm parameters and Leydig cells.
Results: The results demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in number of Leydig cells in experimental groups compared to control one. In addition, the data showed a reduction in testosterone and a rise in LH level which was more obvious in high doses (p<0.05); however, FSH level showed a reduction but it was not statistically significant. A significant decrease was also found in sperm motility and normal sperm morphology in the experimental groups compared to the control one.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that silver nano-particles, in addition to interruption in functions of sex hormones, can diminish the number of Leydig cells and sperm parameter indices. It should be noted that the effects of nano-particles on reproductive indices are dose-dependent.

Majid Pourentezari, Alireza Talebi, Abulghasem Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Esmat Mangoli, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical primarily. AA is also found in carbohydrate-rich foods that are prepared at high temperatures, such as French fries and potato chips. It is demonstrated that AA is a carcinogen and reproductive toxin and has ability to induce sperm damage.
Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of AA on sperm parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality and testosterone hormone in mice.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 16 adult male mice were divided into two groups. Mice of group A fed on basal diet; group B received basal diet and AA (10 mg/kg, water solution) for 35 days. The right cauda epididymis was incised and then placed in Ham’s F10 culture media at 37oC for 15 min. Released spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology and viability. To determine the sperm DNA integrity and chromatin condensation, the cytochemical techniques including Aniline blue, Acridine orange and Chromomycin A3 staining were used.
Results: AA-treated mice had poor parameters in comparison with control animals. In sperm chromatin assessments, except TB (p=0.16), significant differences were found in all of the tests between two groups. It was also seen a significant decrease in concentration of blood testosterone in AA-treated animals when compared to controls (p<0.001).
Conclusion: According to our results, AA can affect sperm parameters as well as sperm chromatin condensation and DNA integrity in mice. These abnormalities may be related to the reduction in blood testosterone.
Marzieh Rahimipour, Ali Reza Talebi, Morteza Anvari, Abolghasem Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Marjan Omidi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice.
Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham’s F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay.
Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively).
Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice.

Arezoo Khoradmehr, Amirhossein Danafar, Iman Halvaei, Jalal Golzadeh, Mahya Hosseini, Tahereh Mirjalili, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (1-2015)

Background: Methamphetamine (MA) is one of most common illicit drugs which were reported that nearly half of MA consumers are women. MA can cross through placenta and affects pregnancy and fetus development.
Objective: Our aim was to evaluate effects of injected MA on crown-rump length, head and placental circumference, body weight, histological changes and apoptosis in fetus.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-four NMRI pregnant mice were randomly divided into five groups. First, second and third groups were injected intraperitoneally 10 mg/kg/day MA during gestational days (GD): GD1-7, GD8-14, and GD1-14, respectively. Forth group, as sham, was injected saline from GD1-14, and finally control which was received neither MA nor saline. On GD15 cervical dislocated pregnant mice, fetus and placenta were weighed and fetus crown-rump length was measured. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and TUNEL assay were applied to assess histological changes and apoptosis respectively.
Results: Fetus body weight and crown-rump length showed significant decrease in third compared to first and second groups (p≤0.001). There were significant differences in head circumference in control and sham compared to third group (0.5 (0.5-0.6), 0.6 (0.5-0.8), 0.4 (0.4-0.5) cm respectively, p≤0.001). Also fetus that treated with MA showed lower placenta circumference compared to control and sham groups. Histological changes such as exencephaly, hemorrhage and immature fetus were observed in second and third groups. Apoptotic cells in second and third groups were higher than controls, but differences were not significant.
Conclusion: It seems MA abuse during pregnancy can cause morphological and histological changes in mice fetus but the exact mechanism remains unclear.
Ladan Bandegi, Morteza Anvari, Mahmood Vakili, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Aghdas Mirjalili, Ali Reza Talebi,
Volume 16, Issue 6 (Jun 2018)

Background: Prescribing antidepressant drugs is becoming common. These drugs are known to affect sexual functions.
Objective: The study is aimed to assess the effects of amitriptyline and venlafaxine on sperm parameters and evaluate Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl values in BALB/ mice spermatozoa.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult male BALB/c mice were separated into five groups. Group Ι (control) received distilled water; group ΙΙ amitriptyline (4 mg/kg); group ΙΙΙ amitriptyline (4 mg/kg) +vitamin C (10 mg/kg); group ΙV venlafaxine (2 mg/kg); and group V received vitamin C (10 mg/kg) + venlafaxine (2 mg/kg). All drugs were administered by oral gavage for 35 days. After excision of caudal epididymis, it was located in 1 mL Hamchr('39')s F10 medium at 37oC for 15 min and then analysis of sperm parameters was performed. To examine lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity, the MDA and 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl were measured, respectively.
Results: The mean sperm parameters in the group treated with amitriptyline were significantly lower than in the other groups. MDA tests showed a significant difference between amitriptyline and control groups (p=0.007).
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that amitriptyline consumption can weaken sperm parameters, which can be attributed to the increased production of ROS and toxicity resulting from amitriptyline consumption. Moreover, venlafaxine improved sperm parameters in mice and the lipid peroxidation in this group did not change compared to the control group.
Fahime Mazaheri, Kazem Kamali, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Noosha Ziya, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 18, Issue 9 (September 2020)

Background: Phosalone is an organophosphate insecticide, applied to control of plant pests. This compound has various side effects because it acts as an acetyl cholinesterase enzyme inhibitor.
Objective: To investigate the effects of phosalone on the sperm parameters of and levels of sex hormones in adult male rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 16 adult (8-12 wk) male Wister rates (weighing 220-280 gr) were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n= 4/each). Group 1 (control) received only routine adequate water and food; Group 2, 3, and 4 received different low doses of phosalone (60, 90, and 120 mg/kg respectively). The rats were weighed and anesthetized after 48 days. Sperm parameters including number, motility, and viability as well as sex hormones (such as Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone, and testosterone) were evaluated and compared after removing the epididymis tail.
Results: Our results showed that phosalone decreased sperm motility, viability, and number in a dose-dependent manner. The level of FSH and LH was increased, and testosterone was decreased. Also, depending on the dose, phosalone decrease sperm motility and viability (p ≤ 0.001), while the level of FSH and LH was increased and testosterone was decreased (p = 0.861).
Conclusion: Phosalone has negative effects on reproductive indices in male rats and can cause serious damage and decrease the number and sperms motility. It can also cause infertility due to changing the concentration of hormones.
Daniyal Ezati, Reyhane Vardiyan, Alireza Talebi, Morteza Anvari, Majid Pourentezari,
Volume 18, Issue 10 (October 2020)

Background: Formalin is commonly applied as an antiseptic and tissue fixative. It has reactive molecules that lead to its cytotoxic effects. According to recent studies, formalin causes a change in the testicular and sperm structure and L-carnitine (LC) acts as an antioxidant to counteract its effects.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of LC on the parameters, chromatin condensation and apoptosis of mice sperm exposed to formalin.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 24 balb/c mice (25-40 gr ,10-12 wk) were divided into three groups (n = 8/each): group I without any injections or gavage; group II, received 10 mg/ kg formalin intraperitoneally (I.P); and group III was exposed to formalin and LC, where a dose of 10 mg/kg formalin was injected I.P daily and LC the dose of 100 mg/kg was kept in a solvent solution. After 31 days, the sperm examination was performed as follows: to evaluate chromatin and DNA quality of the sperm, we applied aniline blue (AB), toluidine blue (TB), chromomycin A3 (CMA3), and terminal transferase-mediated deoxy uridine triphosphate biotin end labeling (TUNEL) tests.
Results: Sperm parameters such as count, motility, morphology, and viability displayed a significant decrease in the formalin group. While the data exhibited a considerable augment in sperm parameters in the formalin + LC than the formalin and control groups (p < 0.001), significant differences were detected between groups with respect to TB staining, TUNEL test, CMA3 test and AB staining in the formalin and formalin + LC groups.
Conclusion: LC can reduce the negative effects of formalin on sperm parameters, chromatin stability, and percentage of apoptosis in an animal model.

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