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Showing 43 results for Aflatoonian

Abass Aflatoonian, Reza Aflatoonian, Zahra Khashavi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2003)
Abstract

Background: Ovarian functional cyst is one of the most common pelvic mass in reproductive age which mostly resolves spontaneously. Sonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis of benign cyst with high accuracy. The objective of this cross sectional study was to evaluate the accuracy of transvaginal sonography in detecting type of ovarian cyst and compare the results wieh cytological results. Materials and Methods: 82 women in reproductive age who have had simple ovarian cysts with benign criteria which unresolved after taking contraceptive pills for 3 months were considered for this clinical study. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of cysts were done and were then sent to the pathological evaluation. Also, all data regarding the size of the cysts and aspirated fliud were recorded in charts for further statistical analysis. Results: The accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound comparing with cytology on diagnosis for functional cysts was 94.9%, for epithelial ovarian cyst was 97.5% and for endometrioma was 97.5% (P= 0.0001).The size of cysts with diameter of <10cm was not related to the quality of cysts. Conclusion: The results showed that sonography is a valuable and reliable tool for diagnosis of benign ovarian cyst. It seems that if a mass appears benign by ultrasound morphologic criteria, probability of it being malignant is near to zero, which can be aspirated by transvaginal route without any fear from missing of malignancy or complication
Robab Davar, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)
Abstract

Background: In patients with anovulatory infertility the first choice of treatment for ovulation induction is an antiestrogen, most commonly clomiphene citrate (CC). However, 20-25% of the women are resistant to CC and do not ovulate perhaps due to antiestrogenic mechanism of the CC action, which involves long-lasting estrogen receptor (ER) depletion. Objective: The objective of the study was to mimic the action of CC without depletion of ERs by the administration of an aromatase inhibitor letrozole in a selected group of Poly Cystic Ovary (PCO) patients who demonstrated failure to ovulate after treatment with CC. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), who had previously inadequately responded to CC were selected for study. The aromatase inhibitor letrozole was administered orally in a dose of 2.5 mg on days 3-7 of the menstrual cycle. Then, occurrence of ovulation, endometrial thickness, and pregnancy rates were determined. Result(s): Only one patient had one dominant follicle (1.8 cm diameter) on day 14 of the cycle (estradiol = 200 pg/ml). IUI was done; however, no pregnancy took place. In the remaining cases, several sonographies were done between days 9 to 15 of the cycle; however, all cycles were cancelled due to absence of a dominant follicle (>1.4 cm). Conclusion(s): Our study did not confirm the favorable effect of letrozole for induction of ovulation in patients with clomiphene resistant PCO. Article
Alireza Vahidi, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mehrdad Soleimani, Mohammad Hossein Amir Arjmand, Abbas Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh, Afsaneh Kermaninejhad,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)
Abstract

Backgrownd: Studies in regions with seasonal climatic variations have revealed a correlation between human natural conception and birth rates. Holidays and other cultural activities probably have influence on conception, but the ambient temperature and emotional influences on the female hormones related to fertility may play an important part in the seasonal variation in conception. Objectives: The aim of study was to determine the relationship between the success rate of Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) treatment cycles and temperature in different seasons. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on all individuals undergoing assisted ART at our institution was performed during June 2000 to June 2001. The study population represented 258 IVF-ET cycles and 821 ICSI treatment cycles. Different variables were analyzed using ?2 test. Results: In IVF treatment cycles, conception was more common from early spring (March to June). This decreased from spring, with the minimum in fall, 22% and 14%, respectably. A significant seasonal variability in the number of eggs, embryo transferred and sperm motility was not demonstrated (p>0.05), but sperm count was significantly higher in spring than any other season (72+4 x106 and 52+7x106, respectively). Conclusion: The seasonal changes should be taken into account together with other factors when evaluating infertility data. Article
Abbas Aflatoonian, Tahereh K Bidgoli,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (7-2005)
Abstract

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a unique iatrogenic complication of controlled ovarian stimulation (COH)/in vitro fertilization (IVF) in reproductive endocrinology occurring during the luteal phase or early pregnancy. It can have a serious impact on the patient�s health. With the expansion of the assisted reproductive techniques (ART) from 1978, the incidence of OHSS is increasing worldwide.OHSS is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, ovarian enlargement, fluid shift to the third space, and hemoconcentration. Severe cases are associated with thromboembolic phenomena, respiratory distress, liver dysfunction and renal failure. OHSS is more common among woman who are young, thin and have PCOS or multiple allergies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other cytokines are pivotal in the pathogenesis of OHSS. In the prevention of any disease, it should be emphasized that the possibility of primary prevention depends on two main requirements, first, the etiology of the disease and predisposing factors; and second, it must be feasible to avoid or manipulate such factors as paint of a prevention strategy. This strategy for preventing OHSS and its severity have included prediction of women at risk; the first step in prevention is identification of patients at risk by the recognition of risk factors. As this is not always possible, there are several ways of avoiding developing of the syndrome. The stimulation phase has to be carefully monitored (regular ultrasound and estradiol measurements), and further interventions need to be implemented if signs of hyper-response are present. The aim of this systemic review of the literature is to answer this question: �can we prevent severe OHSS�. Canceling the cycle, modification of method to trigger ovulation administration of macromolecules, coasting approach, timed unilateral or bilateral aspiration of one or two ovaries performed before or after hCG administration, In vitro maturation (IVM), elective cryopreservation of all embryos, and laser or electrocautery of one or both ovaries, have been showed to be associated with a reduced risk of OHSS by some research groups. The effect of combined method should be assessed. Finally, apart from canceling, none of these approaches was totally efficient, although most of the above-mentioned methods decrease the incidence in patients at high risk of OHSS, but overall �prevention is the ideal treatment of OHSS�.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Maryam Asgharnia,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)
Abstract

The main factors affecting pregnancy and implantation rates are uterine receptivity, embryo quality, and transfer efficiency. Embryo transfer (ET) is the last step of critically important procedure of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and probably the least successful step in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment cascade; though simple in most of the cases, it may pose to be the most difficult in some. No matter how good the IVF laboratory culture environment is, the physician can ruin everything with a carelessly performed embryo transfer. The entire IVF cycle depends on delicate placement of the embryos at the proper location near the middle of the endometrial cavity. Pregnancy rates will be significantly increased with the following procedures: 1. Trial transfer 2. Avoiding the initiation of uterine contractility by using soft catheters, gentle manipulation and by avoiding touching the fundus. 3. Removal of cervical mucus, wash and lavage of cervix with culture media. 4. Ultrasound-guided ET with full bladder. 5. Deposition of the embryo 2 cm below the uterine fundus. 6. Examination of catheter following transfer for retained embryos, blood and mucus. Slow withdrawal of the embryo transfer catheter, the use of a fibrin sealant, bed rest after embryo transfer, sexual intercourse and routine administration of antibiotics following embryo transfer remained to be studied by randomized clinical trials (RCTs).
Abdolhossein Rezaeian, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Safar Farajnia, Mehrdad Soleimani, Abbas Baghi, Abbas Aflatoonian, Sirous Zeinali,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)
Abstract

Abstract Background: Determination of transgenic embryos from non transgenic embryos sibling is an important step in producing homozygous transgenic mice. These steps need by PCR or southern blotting followed extraction of DNA, but both techniques require skill and consume time. Objective: The aim of this study was simulation of high accuracy method using novel enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene cassette to eliminate some consume time in livestock industry to assay high quality embryos and morphological plasticity. Materials and Methods: We modified pQE-Tri systemic vector with EGFP and IRES sequence to trace out coming planning of molecular farming transgene using co-injection method. Results: The combination of these sequences successfully showed the faint and normal expression of transgene in mouse pre-implantation stage embryos. The low rate of surviving green positive embryos as compare as only medium and physical treatments could be partly from the physical damage caused by microinjection and gene integration. Furthermore, application of the enhanced GFP marker facilitated subtle detection of asymmetrical division appeared in some of transgenic embryos. Conclusion: The results of current mouse simulation model imply that an efficient production and propagation of transgenic livestock can be done by co-injection of every economical gene with this novel transgene and also it can be suitable gene cassette for numerous experiments and study of protein behaviors in living cells.
Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (7-2008)
Abstract

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Abbas Aflatoonian, Sedigheh Ghandi, Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)
Abstract

Background: One of the major and life-threatening side effects of Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) is ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The available data however, have been showed that both Cabergoline (anti VEGF) and coasting reduce the severity of OHSS. Objective: We aimed to compare coasting and Cabergoline administration in prevention of severe OHSS. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 IVF/ICSI cycles were selected. Patients at risk of developing OHSS were divided into two groups as patient's convenience. For 30 patients in coasting group, exogenous gonadotropins were withheld to allow E2 to decrease while GnRH-a was maintained. Then 10,000 unit hCG was administrated and oocyte retrieval was performed 36 hours later. In Cabergoline group, 30 patients were administered with 0.5mg Cabergoline tablet on day of hCG injection, continued for 8 days. Results: The mean number of retrieved, good quality, mature oocytes and the mean number of embryos were significantly different in two groups (p<0.05). The clinical pregnancy rate was 13.3% in coasting and 26.7% in Cabergoline group that was not significantly different (p>0.05). The incidence of severe OHSS was similar in two groups. Conclusion: The Cabergoline was as effective as coasting in the prevention of early severe OHSS in high risk patients, but yielded more retrieved oocytes.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Seyed Mohammad Seyedhassani, Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (7-2009)
Abstract

Background: Infertility is defined as one year unprotected intercourse without pregnancy. It greatly affects couples' quality of life and has great impact on their careers everyday activities sexual and non-sexual relationships. Objective: To study the prevalence of both primary and secondary infertility and demographic characteristics of it in Yazd province. Materials and Methods: We studied 5200 married defined couples in 260 randomized clusters. These couples were interviewed based on using a structured questionnaire. Then for etiological evaluation infertile couples were referred to the Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Results: Among these couples 277 cases of infertility were encountered and the overall prevalence of infertility was 5.52% (95% CI from 4.9% to 6.1%). In total 170 couples (3.48%) had primary and 107 (2.04%) had secondary infertility. The prevalence of infertility in rural and urban areas was 5.3% and 6.8% respectively. Female factors were more common (57.5%) in etiologic assessment of infertility. Conclusion: Our data showed a lower total prevalence of infertility in our people compared to the other countries. Furthermore there was significant difference in infertility prevalence between geographic parts of the province. Female factors and among them ovarian disorders were the main cause of infertility in central part of Iran.
Seyed Mohammad Seyedhassani, Massoud Houshmand, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Abbas Aflatoonian, Glayol Modabber, Fatemeh Hadipour, Mohammad Hossein Fallahzadeh,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)
Abstract

Background: Mitochondrial transfer RNAs (tRNA) genes are essential components of protein biosynthesis. These genes are hotspots for mutations. These mutations are associated with a wide spectrum of human disease. Many genetic factors are known in assessment of repeated pregnancy loss (RPL). Objective: The aim of this study was analysis of tRNA Thr and tRNA Pro in women with RPL. Materials and Methods: The nucleotide variations of threonine and proline were investigated in 96 women with idiopathic repeated pregnancy loss. The related mitochondrial area was amplified using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were demonstrated by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis and all the positive samples were purified and verified by an automated DNA sequencing method. Results: The sequence analysis revealed 4 mutations in tRNA Thr. These mutations were A15907G in 2 cases (2.08%) A15924G in 3 cases (3.12%) G15928A in 10 cases (10.42%) as the most common mutations and G15930A in 3 cases (3.12%) as a novel mutation. Also the result of tRNApro sequencing showed the T15972C mutation in 1 woman (1.04%) as a novel mutation. Conclusion: These tRNAs mutations can alter their steady state level and affect the structure of tRNAs. It results in protein synthesis defects and in turn mitochondrial dysfunction. The mutations of these genes may help in the assessment of RPL. Further study of an expanded series of these tRNA mutants is recommended to describe their etiologic role in idiopathic RPL.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Mehri Mashayekhy, Farnaz Mohamadian, Fatemeh Mansoori Moghaddam,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (7-2010)
Abstract

Background: Determination of oocyte and embryo quality are one of the most important goals in IVF. Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is secreted by the ovarian granulosa cells into blood flow and follicular fluid. Follicular fluid anti-mullerian hormone level is probably a marker of activity of granulose cells. Objective: To evaluate whether high level of follicular fluid anti-mullerian hormone level is related to success of fertilization and better embryo quality. Materials and Methods: 62 women, whose follicular fluid sample was obtained from a single follicle in each patient, underwent IVF with GnRH-agonist long protocol. Based on oocyte fertilization, the patients were divided into fertilized group (n=42) and non-fertilized group (n=20). FF AMH levels were measured in both groups and the quality of embryos was determined in fertilized group. Results: Median of FF AMH level in fertilized group was higher than that in non-fertilized group (5.7ng/ml v.s. 2.7ng/ml) and a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. There was a significant difference between FF AMH level and scores of embryos (p<0.001). The medians levels of FF AMH were 6.7ng/ml in good quality embryos and 3.80ng/ml in fair quality embryos. Conclusion: Our results indicate that FF AMH level has positive correlation with fertilization and embryo quality; therefore, it can be considered as a marker of IVF outcome.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)
Abstract

Background: Human fertility has been declined all over the world. Advanced women’s age is one of the most important factors in determining the success of reproduction and ageing has negative impact on ART outcome and advanced female age decreases the chance of live birth rates achieved using ART, especially after 40 years of age. Objective: To evaluate ART outcomes regarding to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates in women 40 years and older. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on three hundred-thirteen women undergoing ART cycles in the Madar Hospital in Yazd. Women with age ? 40 years who indicated for ART enrolled the study regardless of the infertility type or etiology. In this study, we used data from IVF or ICSI cycles using fresh embryo transfer. Follow up was performed in regard to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates. Results: The mean age of women was 41.87±1.97 years. Chemical pregnancy rate was 8.6% (27/313) per cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was 3.8% (12/313) per cycle. Spontaneous abortion was observed in 63% (17/27) of patients with positive pregnancy test. The overall cancellation rate was 23.3% per oocytes retrieval. The overall live birth rate per cycle for all women who initiated an ART cycle at age ?40 years was 3.2% (10/313) that eight of those women were under 42 years old. Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that women with age 42 years and above should be advised to use other options, including oocyte donation or adoption.
Seyed Morteza Seifati, Kazem Parivar, Abbas Aflatoonian, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecologic disorders. It is a complex trait and both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that exposure to environmental contaminants is a risk factor for endometriosis. Glutathione-S-Transferase M1 (GSTM1) is one of the genes involved in detoxification of endogenous and exogenous compounds.
Objective: Several studies have indicated an association between GSTM1 null mutation and endometriosis. In this study, the possible association between the GSTM1 gene null genotype and susceptibility to endometriosis in woman from central and southern Iran was investigated.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and one unrelated premenopausal women with endometriosis and 142 unrelated healthy premenopausal women without endometriosis were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from Peripheral blood in all subjects. GSTM1 null genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: There was no significant difference between frequencies of GSTM1 null genotype in case and control groups (50.5% Vs. 52.1%, p=0.804). Furthermore, this genotype was not associated with severity of endometriosis in our sample (p=0.77).
Conclusion: further studies involving gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, particularly combination of GSTM1 and other GST gene family polymorphisms are needed.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad, Behnaz Molaei, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Conventional IVF and ICSI are two common techniques to achieve fertilization. IVF has long been used for treatment of infertility, although it is not an effective treatment in severe male infertility. The use of ICSI has been expanded in severe male factor and fertilization failure after IVF cycle. In spite of the widespread use of ICSI in patients with non-male factor infertility, there is still little evidence to confirm its effectiveness in this population. Objective: To evaluate assisted reproductive technology outcomes between IVF and ICSI cycles in non-male factor, normoresponder patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 220 non-male factors, normoresponder patients who were indicated for ART were enrolled in this study. The patients received standard long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist protocols for ovarian stimulation and after oocytes retrieval, the patients were divided into two groups (IVF and ICSI groups). In IVF group (n=112), all of retrieved oocytes were treated by conventional IVF and in ICSI group (n=88), microinjection (ICSI) was done on all of retrieved oocytes.
Results: In IVF group, fertilization and implantation rates were significantly higher than ICSI group (66.22% and 16.67% in IVF group versus 57.46% and 11.17% in ICSI group, respectively). Chemical and clinical pregnancy rates were statistically higher in IVF group as compared with the ICSI group (42.9% vs. 27.3% and 35.7% vs. 21.5%, respectively).
Conclusion: According to our study, the routine use of ICSI is not improved fertilization, implantation and chemical pregnancy rates and is not recommended in non-male factor, normozoospermic patients.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad, Parisa Khani, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Fertilization failure is one of the most problems in assisted reproduction technology (ART).
Objective: The aim of this study was the evaluation of oocytes activation by addition of calcium ionophore in unfertilized oocytes in ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: This study was done on 15 ICSI cycles (stimulated with standard long protocol). Mature retrieved oocytes with normal morphology that had no evidence of fertilization 24 hours after ICSI were included in the study. The oocytes with fertilization and unfertilized oocytes with degeneration were excluded from the study. The unfertilized oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and were transferred to GIVF medium that contained 5 µmol of calcium ionophore and were incubated for 10 minutes. Then again oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and consequently were transferred to GIVF medium and were incubated at 37°C in 6% CO2. After 18 hours, the oocytes were examined and activated oocytes were defined with observation of at least one pronucleus or cleaved oocytes.
Results: After ovarian stimulation and oocytes retrieval, 175 mature oocytes were obtained and injection of sperm was done for all of them. 114 of 175 oocytes (66%) showed evidence of fertilization after 24 hours. A total of 61 oocytes (34%) showed no evidence of fertilization and 10 oocytes were degenerated and were excluded from the study. Only 51 unfertilized oocytes with normal morphology were selected and were exposed to calcium ionophore. 37 (72.5%) of treated oocytes were fertilized (2PN) and 32 (62.7%) of them showed evidence of cleavage. 6 (11.8%) embryos had good quality.
Conclusion: According to our results, oocytes activation with calcium ionophore had an acceptable fertilization rate, however high quality embryos remained low. We propose future studies to evaluate embryo quality.
Mohammad Hosein Mosaddegh, Nasrin Ghasemi, Tahere Jahaninejad, Fatemeh Mohsenifar, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)
Abstract

  Background:   Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of Levothyroxine in treatment of RPL in women with high auto-thyroid antibodies.   Materials and Methods: In this observational cross sectional study, 900 women who had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss were studied. All women with high anti-TPO antibody without any other problems entered in this study. Levothyroxine was given to them two months before pregnancy till the end of pregnancy. The doses of levothyroxine were depended on the anti-TPO levels, which were decided by endocrinologist. Women followed for the results of pregnancies. Results: The success rate of pregnancy in women with abnormal anti-TPO with Levothyroxine therapy was 82.85%. Mean of anti-TPO in women with treatment before taking medication was 488.35 and after that it was 123.35 UI/ml. This difference was significant (p<0.05). The mean of the antibodies was not significantly different in women without treatment. Conclusion: This study showed that Levothyroxine reduces the incidence of spontaneous abortions in women with high Anti-TPO antibody. It decreased anti-TPO antibody levels after 2-3 months treatment.
Majid Teremmahi Ardestani, Hossein Hadi Nodushan, Abbas Aflatoonian, Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)
Abstract

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) caused by various genetic and non-genetic factors. After chromosome abnormality, thrombophilia is one of the most important genetic factors that could cause RPL. Factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation were the most common mutations cause thrombophilia in the world.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombine gene mutations in women with RPL compared with women who had uneventful pregnancies.
Materials and Methods: This case control study evaluates the frequency of factor V-Leiden and factor II G20210 genotypes in 80 women with two or more pregnancy losses, compared with 80 women without adverse pregnancy outcome. The mutations were assessed by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Frequency of the factor V Leiden among cases was 2.5%, which was higher than controls (1.25%), but the difference was not significant. No factor II G20210 mutation was found among cases and controls.
Conclusion: These data did not confirm that factor V Leiden and factor II G20210 mutation might play a role in recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women.
Nastaran Aflatoonian, Maryam Eftekhar, Behrooz Aflatoonian, Elham Rahmani, Abass Aflatoonian,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)
Abstract

Background: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is defined as pregnancy failure after two to six times with at least ten high grade embryo transfer to uterus. A variety of causes have been anticipated for RIF, including anatomical, autoimmune, genetics, endocrine and thrombotic anomalies. Factors responsible for RIF have important implication regarding treatment however in many couples a perfect cause cannot be found.
Cases: In these case series, we reported nine couples with RIF that after investigation no definitive etiology was found for RIF and empirical therapy by heparin, aspirin and or immunotherapy was not effective. In these cases we recommended transfer of embryos to surrogate uterus. Nine patients were studied and six of them developed a normal pregnancy (pregnancy rate=66.66%).
Conclusion: This study showed that surrogacy is a good option for treatment of RIF.
Abass Aflatoonian, Elham Rahmani, Mozhgan Rahsepar,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (5-2013)
Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is a common hormone-dependent gynecologic disease with a high recurrence. Laparotomy or laparoscopy is the standard surgery for the large endometrioma. Also, sclerotherapy is basically used to treat different diseases one of which is endometrioma.
Objective: The study was designed to assess the value of transvaginal ultrasound-guided ethanol sclerotherapy in patients with a recurrent endometrioma.
Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, an interventional group of 20 patients underwent transvaginal ethanol sclerotherapy for recurrent ovarian endometrioma. The patients were followed up first after one and two weeks and then after one, two, and three months. If the patients had no endometrioma, they were treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) (standard long protocol). A control group of 20 patients with endometrioma were enrolled for an IVF protocol. They had no treatment by ethanol sclerotherapy. IVF parameters, pregnancy rates, and implantation rates were compared in both groups.
Results: The demographic data showed no difference between the two groups. The initial mean endometria size was 41.45±15.9 cm, the recurrence rate after 6 months was 4 (20%), FSH before and after sclerotherapy was 6.97±2.25 IU/L and 6.78±1.88 IU/L (p=0.343). The clinical pregnancy rate was 6 (33.3%) vs. 3 (15%), (p=0.616). The fertilization rate emerged 63.06% in study group vs. 60.38%, (p=0.57). The implantation rate turned out 12.9% in study group vs. 7.5%, (p=0.52). None of these results were significant. However, the data pointed to a better trend toward the ethanol sclerotherapy group.
Conclusion: Ethanol sclerotherapy could be an effective strategy for the treatment of recurrent endometrioma especially before IVF.
Nastaran Aflatoonian, Soheila Pourmasumi, Abbas Aflatoonian, Maryam Eftekhar,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)
Abstract

Background: Cryopreservation of embryos has been an usual component of clinic in assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs. Recently the dramatic increase in cryobiology activity in the clinical centers has enhanced methods of freezing and improved vitrification protocols are being developed.
Objective: The aim of our study was to assess the effect of storage duration of frozen embryo on ART outcome.
Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study the data of 651 frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles were assessed over a 36-months period. Our patients were categorized according to storage time of freeze. Group I: less than 90 days, Group II: between 90-365 days. Group III: between 365-730 days. Group IV: between 730-1095 days. Group V: more than 1095 days. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were defined and statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test and Chi-square.
Results: According to our finding patient’s mean age was 31.05±5.231 years (range, 18-53 years), and 1204 embryos were transferred .The mean storage duration was 296.72±301.82 days. The mean number of embryo transferred per cycle was similar between groups (p=0.224). According to our analysis clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer cycle was similar between groups (p=0.563).
Conclusion: Our results showed that duration of storage had no negative effects on implantation of cryopreserved embryos. In our literature review we found a little article In this context. However our study showed duration of freezing don’t have any negative effects on implantation and pregnancy outcome, but more studies are needed to evaluate long term effects of storage duration on babies were born by cryopreserved embryos.

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