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Seyed Hassan Hejazian, Mohhamad Hossein Dashti, Ali Rafati,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background: Fertility is considered as a life conservative phenomenon among married couples which can be obliterated by various conditions affecting both males and females. In the other hand  addiction is a problem which increasingly developed among the various populations throughout the world, and there are evidences that addiction may affect the hypothalamous-pituitary-gonadal axis and sexual functions.The precise pharmacological effects of chronic use of opium on serum level of gonadotropins and male sex hormones are not studied extensively. This study was conducted to investigate the changes in these parameters in opium addicted men.
Materials and Methods: The blood samples from 46 opium addicts and 46 normal men were taken, and the testosterone, LH and FSH levels in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique using a LKB gamma counter. 
Results: The result of this study showed that the serum testosterone in opium addicts were decreased significantly compared to the controls (p<0.01). This reduction was directly proportional to the duration of opium usage. The LH and FSH level in opium addicts showed also significant reduction compared to the controls (p<0.01and p<0.05 respectively).
Conclusion: According to our findings the chronic use of opium can cause significant decrease in the functions of hypophysiol gonadal secretion which may led to sexual suppression and infertility which needs further investigations.
Seyedeh Nazanin, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Hannan Ebrahimi, Hanieh Rafati Sajedi, Gelayol Chatrnour,
Volume 14, Issue 10 (10-2016)

Background: Physical exercise is known to be a stressor stimulus that leads to reproductive disruption.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forced swimming on the uterus and ovaries in mice.
Materials and Methods: Adult mice (N=24) were divided into the following threegroups: A, control; B, swimming in water (10PoPC); and C, swimming in water (23PoPC).Swimmers swam for 5 min daily for 5 consecutive days/ wk during 2 wks. Anenzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum estradiol, folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels. Immunohistochemistry wasperformed to study apoptotic cells or estrogen receptor (ER) expression in uterineepithelial cells and ovaries. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis56T.
Results: Swimming in both groups reduced the serum FSH and estradiol levels (p<0.01) without having a significant effect on the serum testosterone level or percentage of apoptosis in ovarian and uterine tissues (p<0.01) compared with controls. A significant reduction in the number of ERs in the uterus and ovaries, and secondary and graafian follicles were observed in groups B and C compared with controls (p<0.01); however the number of primordial and primary follicles were not significantly changed in the ovaries.
Conclusion: Forced swimming of 2 wks duration reduces the serum levels of FSH and estradiol without having effects on apoptosis in the ovaries or uteri of mice. Over a long period of time, forced swimming may have an adverse effect on fertility.

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