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Mohammad A Khalili, Alexander G Rabchevsky,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2003)

Materials and Methods: Young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g) were assigned into one of the three different groups of control, SCI, and adenovirus transfer (Ad) (n=3/ group). Control rats received no injury, nor any surgery. For SCI rats, SCI was produced by a 10g brass rod with a tip diameter of 2 mm which was dropped from a height of 12.5 mm onto exposed spinal cord at level of T10 with NYU impactor. Animals were perfused transcardially 43 days post SCI. Both spinal cord and testicular tissues were cryo-sectioned and ultra thin-sectioned, respectively. Cellular morphology and morphometry were done for spinal cord tissues. The testicular samples were processed for both light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The third group of rats underwent SCI first, followed by microinjection of LacZ adenoviral vectors (5x106 p.f.u./ �l) along the T6-T10 dorsal root entry zone bilaterally. The immune system of animals were suppressed before the Ad administration. Each Ad injection was done using a glass micropipet and a Nonoject injector. Rats were killed 43 days after Ad injections, and the tissues were studied as for other groups.
Valli A Dehghani, Mohammad A Khalili, Nahid Zamani, Fakhri Dreh-Zereshki,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Proper collections of human ejaculates are necessary for semen analysis and infertility treatment purposes. The objective of this study was to assess the seminal characteristics of ejaculates collected by patients via masturbation and coitus interruptus. Thirty individuals produced one sample via masturbation and one via incomplete coitus during a 3-days interval. The semen parameters were compared and analyzed with student t-test and Nemar test. The results showed that mean values for progressive motility of spermatozoa were increased from 46.81+15.7% to 58.76+13.5% in coitus interruptus and masturbation, respectively (P<0.01). Also, the mean values for normal sperm morphology was 54.03+25.1% in coitus interruptus and 63.36+13.4% in samples collected via masturbation (P<0.01). In addition, sperm concentration was significantly improved in ejaculates collected with masturbation (P<0.05). Although, insignificant, the concentration of round cells were lower in specimens collected via masturbation than coitus interruptus. Therefore, via masturbation method, better semen characteristics were yielded which subsequently may improve the infertility treatment outcome.
Mohammad Reza Moein, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Arash Davoudi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: Pentoxifylline (PX) is a methyxanthin derivative that influences the sperm motion characteristics. In general, PX has been reportedly effective in preserving sperm motility in vitro, also when administered orally to the asthenozoospermic patients. Objective: The main objective of this prospective clinical trial study was to rule out the effect of oral administration of PX on sperm progressive motility of asthenozoospermic ejaculates obtained from men with or without mild testicular varicoceles. In addition, the role of patient�s age on sperm motility following PX administration was investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 infertile men with asthenozoospermia were allocated to this study. Following physical examination, 20 cases were found with mild varicocele of testis. A dosage of 400 mg PX/ twice daily for duration of 3 months was administered to each patient. Two semen samples (one before and one after the PX therapy) were evaluated under blind condition. Semen parameters of sperm concentration, total and fast progressive motility (%) and morphology (%) were analyzed for each sample. Also, the sperm motion characteristics of asthenozoospermic patients with testicular varicocele were compared with cases lacking varicocele. The subjects were divided into two age groups of <30 and ?30 years old. Results: PX was significantly effective on the fast progressive motility of sperm (p<0.01). Also, total progressive motility was enhanced from 26.82�16.8 to 29.60�22.2 with PX therapy. However, PX did not have any negative effect on other semen parameters. Oral therapy of PX was also effective in improving the fast progressive motility of sperm of samples from cases with or without mild testicular varicocele (p<0.01). Fast progressive motility was also significantly enhanced in ejaculates of men from both age groups. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that low dose of oral therapy of PX is significantly useful in enhancing fast progressive motility of sperms from infertile men with asthenozoospermia. Also, testicular varicocele did not interfere with enhancing effect of PX on sperm motility.
Mohammad Ali Khalili, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background: Research studies on reproductive mechanism of laboratory animals are essential for further advancement of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). One of these studies includes the assessment of in-vitro development of pre-implantation embryos. The objective was to compare the cleavage rates and morphology of in-vivo formed 2 to 8 cell embryos and blastocysts with in-vitro culture of the same embryos for 24 h.
Materials and Methods: 6-8 weeks old female NMRI mice were superovulated with 8IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG, ip). Two superovulated animals were caged with one male mouse for mating. Mated mice were killed by cervical dislocation at different time intervals to collect a total of 200 (50/ each) 2, 4, 8, and blastocyst embryos from uterine tubes and horns. Following morphological evaluation and cleavage rates, all embryos were incubated in Whittingham's T6 media+5% BSA for 24 h. Following incubation at 37ºC in 5% CO2, the cleavage rates as well as morphological feature of each embryo was re-evaluated and compared with the original embryos.
Results: The best quality embryos collected from uterine tubes were at 2-cells stage, which were reduced when compared with in-vivo developed 4-8 cells embryos. 88% and 52% of 2 and 8 cells embryos were respectively at grade A stage.  28 embryos out of 50 eight-cell embryos were at grades C and D after incubation. Following in vitro culture, the development of 16%, 24%, 24%, and 40% of the 2, 4, 8 cells, and blastocysts were arrested, respectively. Also, only 2 blastocysts (8%) reached the hatching stage which in comparison with in-vivo blstocysts were increased (P>0.05).
Conclusion: In-vitro culture of the in-vivo formed embryos reduced their cleavage rates and morphology, especially at more advanced stages. Therefore, it becomes necessary to improve the in-vitro culture condition and to transfer the embryos at early stage to consequently improve the implantation rates.
Ali Reza Talebi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Hossein Nahangi, Abulghasem Abbasi, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men at the peak of their reproductive health. Only 10% of SCI men can father children without medical assistance due to potential impairments in ejaculation and sperm quality.
Objective: The main objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the epididymal necrospermia- sperm death, after chronic SCI in rat.
Materials and Methods: Forty-five adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of SCI, sham, and control. Following laminectomy, SCI was induced onto exposed dura matter (T10) of anesthetized rats. Sham group underwent laminectomy of T10 only; while, control rats were not exposed to any type of injury or medication. The spermatozoa from cauda epididymis were aspirated after 50 days for analysis of necrospermia with three assays of Eosin-Y staining, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS), and Hoechst 33258 fluorescent dye.
Results: The rate of necrospermia in SCI rats was significantly increased when compared with other groups (p<0.05). Also, the rates of necrspermia in SCI samples were similar with application of 3 assays (Eosin-Y: 46.11±9.41; HOS: 45.88±8.89; Hoechst: 46.76±9.31). Total necrospermia was not observed in any of the epididymal samples.
Conclusion: The results showed that chronic SCI is associated with high rate of epididymal necrospermia in mammals such as rats. It is, therefore, recommended that an effective laboratory technique, such as Hoechst 33258 should be used for separation of live and motile sperms from necrospermic ones for assisted reproduction program.
Mohammad Ali Khalili,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (7-2008)

I read with interest the papers written by Peyghambari et al (2008) and Niknafs et al   nd   et al   et al   et al   et al   et al   et al   et al   (1994) did not observe any   advantage in the pregnancy rates when adding estrogen+progesterone at luteal phase in patients undergoing IVF (6). In conclusion, the mechanism of luteal phase support in assisted reproduction is complex and a controversial issue, which demands further experimented and clinical studies. (2005)   noticed that administration of estrogen + progesterone during luteal phase was involved with higher pregnancy rates in IVF cases (5). In contrast, Lewin (1990) who observed that elevated   progesterone level caused decline in endometrial receptivity following ovarian hyperstimulation in an animal model (4). In clinical setting, however, Alsian (2006)   reported that ovarian hyperstimulation with luteal support using progesterone injection altered the endometrial receptivity. This could be related to the alteration in the ratio of progesterone to estrogen after administration of exogenous gonadotropins (3). Similar results were reported by Kramer (2008) used ovarectomized mice   for their study. In their previous work, Salehnia (2008) used   superovulated mice using gonadotropins, while Payghambari (2008), on the other hand,   reported that injection of progesterone alone at luteal phase did not supply an appropriate endometrial morphology for implantation. It was shown that application of estrogen + progesterone provided an ideal endometrial state for embryo implantation. They believed that hyperstimulation of ovary may induce the morphological alterations which may decrease the endometrial receptivity during implantation. It is important to note that in their study, Niknafs day after estrogen injection. This may suggest   that endometrial proliferation in response to estrogen is a common phenomenon in the uterus of ovarectomized mice. They also found that treatment of progesterone priming with estrogen maintained the stromal proliferation, but was unsuccessful in stimulation of epithelial cells proliferation. The formation of uterine glands was found to be more prominent in progesterone treated mice than with estrogen+progesterone treated group. Niknafs (2008)   on the complex issue of luteal phase support on endometrial function in mice. I would like to comment on the data generated from their studies. Luteal supplementation with either hCG or progestrone significantly improves fertility outcomes compared with no treatment (Pritts and Atwood, 2002) (1). Also, Walter et al (2005) reported that estrogen promotes endometrial proliferation, while progesterone is necessary for stimulating endometrial proliferation (2). Peyghambari and associates (2008) found that uterine epithelial proliferation was optimized on 2
Mohammad Ali Khalili, Najmeh Zare-Zadeh, Hamideh Hashemi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (7-2009)

Background: One of the main laboratory tests for evaluation of infertility is semen analysis (SA). However additional tests may be suggested for further diagnosis of male fertility potentials. The seminal fluid contains sperms non-sperm cells and various types of lipids and glucose.
Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to correlate the sperm parameters with concentrations of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL in serum samples of infertile men with abnormal SA.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 infertile men (aged 23-49 years) with abnormal SA were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. Sperm concentration and motility was evaluated using Makler chamber. While normal morphology was done after Geimsa staining. Following 12 h of fasting the blood samples were obtained for evaluation of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL levels. The lipid profiles were compared with the rates of normal and abnormal sperm parameters. Chi-square and fisher exact tests were used for data evaluation.
Results: 75.5% and 98% of the subjects with normal levels of triglyceride had abnormal sperm morphology and progressive motility respectively. Also abnormal levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were related with abnormal sperm morphology and motility. The levels of LDL and HDL were normal in 80% and 89.3% of the cases respectively. The majority of the patients with normal LDL had abnormal sperm parameters.
Conclusion: The results showed that the concentrations of serum lipids were not generally related with the quality of semen parameters. Further studies on the role of lipid profiles of infertile men with sperm fertilizing potentials are necessary.
Zahra Kiasalari, Mohsen Khalili, Mahbobeh Aghaei,
Volume 7, Issue 5 (7-2009)

Background: There are evidences regarding the prevalence of dysfunction in sexual function and behavior in diabetic people. Experimental studies revealed a positive effect of withania somnifera on sexual function and behaviors.
Objective: In this research, the effect of withania somnifera on sexual function in diabetic male Wistar rats was assessed by measuring the serum levels of testosterone, progesterone, estrogen, FSH and LH.
Materials and Methods: Experimental diabetes mellitus type I was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose (60 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar male rats. Oral withania somnifera root was given in pelleted food at ratio of 6.25% for 4 weeks. The levels of gonadadotropic hormones (LH, FSH), progesterone, estrogen and testosterone in animals’ serum were determined after 4 weeks in all groups.
Results: Withania somnifera root was effective in lowering FSH serum level in somnifera-treated animals compared to controls (p<0.05) in both diabetic and non-diabetic groups, whereas progesterone (p<0.05), testosterone (p<0.05) and LH levels (p<0.001) were significantly higher in non-diabetic treated animals. Oral somnifera root was also able to reverse the reductive effect of diabetes on the progesterone. The estrogen level did not show any significant difference in any of the groups.
Conclusion: It is suggested that withania somnifera may have a regulatory effect on diabetes-induced change of the levels of gonadal-hormones, especially progesterone, in male rats. Nevertheless, somnifera is apparently only able to diminish FSH serum level in intact animals.  
Saeedeh Nazari, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Forouzan Esmaielzadeh, Mehdi Mohsenzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)

Background: In general, 15% of oocytes collected in ART cycles are immature. These oocytes may be cryopreserved further for use in in-vitro maturation (IVM) program.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine maturation capacity, morphometric parameters and morphology of human immature oocytes in both fresh IVM (fIVM) and vitrified-IVM (vIVM) oocytes.
Materials and Methods: 93 women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for ART were included. The immature oocytes (n=203) were divided into two groups: the first group (n=101) directly matured in vitro; and the second group (n=102) first vitrified, then matured in vitro. All oocytes underwent IVM in Ham’s F10 supplemented with LH+FSH and human follicular fluid. After 48h of incubation, the oocyte maturation rates, as well as morphometric and morphologic characteristics were assessed using cornus imaging and were compared.
Results: Oocyte maturation rates were reduced in vIVM, (40.4%), in comparison with fIVM (59.4%, p&lt;0.001). Following morphometric assessment, there was no difference in the mean oocyte diameters (µm) between fIVM and vIVM, 156.3±6.8 and 154.07±9.9, respectively. Other parameters of perimeters, egg areas, as well as oocyte and ooplasm volumes were similar in two groups. In addition, more morphologic abnormalities, such as, vacuole, and dark oocyte were observed in vIVM oocytes.
Conclusion: fIVM was more successful than vIVM groups. No statistical differences were noticed in morphometry assessment in two groups. This suggests that morphometric parameters can not be applied as prognosis factor in oocyte maturation outcome in IVM program.
Maryam Eftekhar, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Elham Rahmani,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)

Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) has been used as a replacement for the mid-cycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge for several years. The recent arrival of recombinant DNA technology has made recombinant HCG (rHCG) accessible.
Objective: To assess efficacy of rHCG compared to urinary HCG (uHCG) for triggering of ovulation and induction of final oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive cycles.
Materials and Methods: 200 patients who were candidate for ICSI were randomly divided in two groups. In group I (rHCG), patients received 250μg of rHCG for final oocyte maturation, and in group II (uHCG) the patients received 10000 IU of uHCG. Measured outcomes were number of retrieved oocyte and mature oocyte, maturation rate of oocyte, fertilization rate and clinical pregnancy rate.
Results: The rates of oocyte maturity were similar in both groups. Fertilization rate was similar in two groups (58.58% in rHCG group versus 60.58% in uHCG group p=0.666). The clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was similar in both group 34.0% in rHCG group versus 39% in uHCG group (p=0.310). Conclusion: We demonstrated that rHCG is as effective as uHCG, when it is used for final oocyte maturation in ICSI cycles. The numbers of retrieved oocyte and maturation rates were similar in both groups; also fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates were similar.
Mohammad Ali Khalili, Stefania A Nottola, Abbas Shahedi, Guido Macchiarelli,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

The use of ovarian stimulation for infertility treatment is associated with side effects of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and potential cancer risk. This is also true in high risk women such as those polycystic with ovary (PCO) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes was primarily developed to make IVF safe for women with PCO and at high risk of OHSS. The application of IVM of oocytes to assist clinical infertility treatment remains poor because of the reduced developmental competence of oocytes after IVM, despite several decades of research. Reduced meiotic maturation and fertilization rates, as well as low blastocyst production reveal short-term developmental insufficiency of oocytes when compared with in vivo-matured counterparts. In this review, the structural role of human oocytes, revealed by different technical approaches, to the success of IVM technology is highlighted.
Abolfazl Barkhordari, Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam, Ali Jebali, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Alireza Talebi, Marzieh Noorani,
Volume 11, Issue 9 (12-2013)

Background: The extensive use of different nanoparticles has raised great concerns about their occupational and biological safety.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on viability of spermatozoa.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples were obtained from 15 healthy persons, and were analyzed using WHO guidelines. Each semen sample was separately incubated with different concentrations of ZnO NPs (10, 100, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) at 37PoPC for 45, 90, and 180 minutes. Then, the cell death percentage of spermatozoa was measured by MTT assay. Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of different times and concentrations.
Results: The maximum cell death percentage was 20.8%, 21.2%, and 33.2% after 45, 90, and 180 minutes, respectively. In case of concentration, the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL) of ZnO NPs led to the highest toxicity for all incubation times. Statistically, there were significant differences in cell viability after 180 minutes vs. 45 and 90 minutes.
Conclusion: This study indicated that cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs is dose and time dependent.
Marjan Omidi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Hossein Nahangi, Sareh Ashourzadeh, Marzieh Rahimipour,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)

Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) is a promising treatment option for certain infertile women. Nowadays, with the aid of PolScope, it has become possible to evaluate zona pellucida (ZP) characteristics as a parameter of oocyte quality. Moreover, quality of oocytes can be influenced by many factors, such as patient’s age. The PolScope system is a non-invasive technique to assess birefringent structures such as the meiotic spindle and ZP in living oocytes.
Objective: The aim was to determine the influence of the woman's age on ZP birefringence, a sign of oocyte quality, and morphology of in-vitro matured human oocytes using non-invasive polarized light (PolScope) microscopy.
Materials and Methods: ZP birefringence and morphology were determined in 105 retrieved oocytes from 58 women undergoing ICSI in two age groups (≥30 years and <30 years). The immature oocytes were selected and after IVM, the quality of metaphase ΙΙ (MII) oocytes was assessed. The oocytes abnormalities were classified as intracytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic abnormalities.
Results: Oocyte maturation rates were significantly reduced in ≥30 year’s women (56%) in comparison with other age group (80.7%). In addition, the ZP birefringence was significantly higher in MII oocytes in the younger group compared with the older group (76.2% vs. 38.1%; p=0.00). Following morphologic assessment, the rates of oocytes with extracytoplasmic (p=0.02) and both abnormalities (extra- and intracytoplasmic) (p=0.01) were higher in aged versus the younger women.
Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between advanced maternal age with decreased ZP birefringence and oocyte morphological quality in in-vitro matured human oocytes.
Ali Nabi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Iman Halvaei, Jalal Ghasemzadeh, Ehsan Zare,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)

Background: It is estimated that about 50% of causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) cases remain unknown. Sperm factors are suggested to have probable role in cases with RPL.
Objective: The goal was to determine the possible relationship between semen bacterial contaminations with unexplained RPL. Also, the correlation between number of bacterial colony and sperm chromatin condensation was examined.
Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 30 fertile men (group A) and 30 infertile (group B) patients with unknown RPL. Semen collection and analysis were done according to WHO manuals. Sperm count and motility were evaluated by Makler chamber. Eosin-Nigrosin and Papanicolaou staining methods were applied for viability and morphology assessment, respectively. The semen samples from both groups were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Aniline blue (AB) and toluidine blue (TB) staining methods were applied for evaluating sperm chromatin condensation.
Results: The numbers of colonies were significantly higher in group B when compared to group A. Also, S. aureus and E. coli showed significant differences between two groups. Both AB+ and TB+ sperm cells showed significant increase in group B compared to group A. There was a significant negative correlation between colony number and progressive motility (p=0.01), sperm viability (p=0.007). In addition, positive correlations were found between colony number and AB (p=0.001) and TB (p=0.004) as well.
Conclusion: Bacterial contaminations in semen of men from RPL couples had significantly higher levels when compared to fertile controls. Presence of microorganisms in semen may be correlated with irregular sperm parameters and quality.
Mahnaz Mansouri Torshizi, Amir Reza Khalighi, Mahla Fadavi Islam, Rahele Aram, Elham Sabouri, Hekmat Khalilifar, Hesam Roustaee,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Human T-cell Lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has infected more than 20 million people worldwide. Northeast of Iran, Mashhad, the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province, is endemic for HTLV-1 with a prevalence of 3% among general population.
Objective: We evaluated the ICSI outcome in our program for (HTLV-1) serodiscordant couples (SDCs) with the female infected in comparison with control group.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed between 2007 and 2011 in Novin Infertility Treatment Center (Mashhad, Iran). We examined 32 ICSI cycles of HTLV-1 infected women in comparison with an age matched control group (n=62). ICSI outcome was compared regarding fertilization rate (FR), embryo quality parameters, implantation rate (IR), clinical pregnancy rate (PR), and abortion rate (AR).
Results: Fertilization (p=0.15), implantation (p=0.33), and pregnancy rate (p=0.12) were similar between the groups. No difference was found regarding the number of transferred embryos (on day 2 or 3) and cryopreserved embryos, multiple pregnancies, or abortion rates between the groups.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the embryo quality and ICSI outcome are not affected by HTLV-1 infection in serodiscordant couples. The major finding of this study is that the outcome of ICSI in HIV-I-infected patients and seronegative controls is similar.
Zahra Pourmovahed, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Iman Halvaei, Ali Nabi, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Farzaneh Fesahat,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Regarding the close and continuous interaction of infertility staff with hopeless infertile couples and in the contrary the atmosphere of happiness especially in obstetric wards make a sense that considering anxiety and depression it would be a difference between these two wards.
Objective: The objective of this study is the comparison of the rate of depression and anxiety between the two wards of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology.
Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-correlation study based on cross-sectional method. 199 individuals who were the staff of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology wards in four provinces enrolled in this study through stratified sampling. Data collection was done by demographic questionnaire, Spiel Berger and Beck depression inventory tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA test.
Results: The result showed the rate of anxiety in obstetrics and gynecology staff of Isfahan center (54.69±13.58) and depression rate had increased level in infertility staff of Shiraz center (14.94±10.87). Overall, there was significant correlation between anxiety, depression and work place (p=0.047, 0.008 respectively). According to ANOVA test, the mean value of anxiety level was higher in the staff of four obstetrics and gynecology centers and one infertility center
Conclusion: As long as we know that infertile couples have little chance for success rate and obstetrics and gynecology wards patients have little risk of failure in treatment, it could be mentioned that the anxiety and depression in the staff are not correlated with the client illness.

Mohammad Ali Khalili, Maryam Dehghan, Saeedeh Nazari, Azam Agha-Rahimi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Ovarian tissue transplantation is emerging technologies for fertility preservation. In addition, in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes retrieved from ovarian tissues may overcome the fertility defects in certain cases.
Objective: The aim was to evaluate the best site for ovarian tissue transplantation in mice. Also, feasibility of IVM of oocytes retrieved from auto grafted ovarian tissues was freshly assessed.
Materials and Methods: Hemi-ovaries from 6 weeks old mice were auto grafted into kidney capsule (K) versus the back muscle (B) and leg muscle (L) in a mouse auto graft model which was stimulated with gonadotrophins. Then ovarian grafts were recovered and processed histologically for follicle assessment compared with control, also the ability of oocytes to mature with IVM was studied 14 days after transplantation.
Results: Total follicle count was significantly higher in K-graft (3.5±3.17) and the antral follicles were only observed in K-site model. The number of retrieved immature oocytes as well as successful IVM in K-grafts was significantly higher than other groups (p=0.008, p=0.016).
Conclusion: The kidney capsule is a promising site for ovarian tissue auto graft in mice. This resulted in better follicular survival and IVM outcomes.

Majid Pourentezari, Alireza Talebi, Abulghasem Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Esmat Mangoli, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical primarily. AA is also found in carbohydrate-rich foods that are prepared at high temperatures, such as French fries and potato chips. It is demonstrated that AA is a carcinogen and reproductive toxin and has ability to induce sperm damage.
Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of AA on sperm parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality and testosterone hormone in mice.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 16 adult male mice were divided into two groups. Mice of group A fed on basal diet; group B received basal diet and AA (10 mg/kg, water solution) for 35 days. The right cauda epididymis was incised and then placed in Ham’s F10 culture media at 37oC for 15 min. Released spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology and viability. To determine the sperm DNA integrity and chromatin condensation, the cytochemical techniques including Aniline blue, Acridine orange and Chromomycin A3 staining were used.
Results: AA-treated mice had poor parameters in comparison with control animals. In sperm chromatin assessments, except TB (p=0.16), significant differences were found in all of the tests between two groups. It was also seen a significant decrease in concentration of blood testosterone in AA-treated animals when compared to controls (p<0.001).
Conclusion: According to our results, AA can affect sperm parameters as well as sperm chromatin condensation and DNA integrity in mice. These abnormalities may be related to the reduction in blood testosterone.
Maryam Niknejadi, Farnaz Akhbari, Fatemeh Niknejad, Gholamreza Khalili, Marzieh Shiva,
Volume 12, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Background: Traditionally, septate uterus was diagnosed with invasive method like hysterosalpingography and hysteroscopy. Nowadays transvaginal ultrasonography was reported to be a sensitive tool for detection of septate uterus too.
Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of two dimensional ultrasound (2-DUS) and real time three dimensional ultrasound (3-DUS) in differentiating various type of septated uterus. Hysteroscopy confirmation was assigned as the gold standard.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed among 215 infertile women with suspected septate uterus from October 2008 to July 2012. An inclusion criterion was septated uterus based on HSG or experiencing abortion, preterm labor, or recurrent IVF failure. Fusion anomalies were excluded from the study (unicornuate, bicornuate and didelphys anomalies). The results of 3D and 2D sonographies were compared, while they were confirmed by hysteroscopy result in detection of septated uterus. Kappa index for agreement between 2DUS and hysteroscopy, as well as 3-DUS and hysteroscopy in detection of septate uterus was carried out. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, cut off points for predicting the kind of anomalies were proposed.
Results: The women were evaluated by 2-DUS (n=89) and (II) 3-DUS (n=126). All women underwent hysteroscopy, following 2-DUS and 3-DUS at the same or subsequent cycle. The results of kappa (K) index were 0.575 and 0.291 for 3-DUS and hysteroscopy, as well as 2-DUS and hysteroscopy, respectively. Also, the cutoff points were 27% for arcuate and subseptate, and 35% for differentiating septate and subseptate.
Conclusion: Real time 3-DUS has better ability for visualization both uterine cavity and the fundal uterine, so it has higher agreement in detection of septate uterus than 2-DUS. 
Azita Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Mehrdad Soleimani,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (5-2015)

Background: Embryo selection is a vital part of in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs, with morphology-based grading systems having been widely used for decades. Time-lapse imaging combined with embryo morph kinetics may proffer a non-invasive means for improving embryo selection. We report the first ongoing and chemical pregnancies using Time-lapse embryo scope to select best embryos for transfer in Iran.
Cases: A case with tubal factor infertility was admitted to IVF program with normozoospermia. After ovarian hyper stimulation, 6 COCs were retrieved and inseminated with 25,000 progressive sperms/ oocyte. Five zygotes were placed individually into the micro wells of equilibrated embryo scope dish for Time-lapse observation, and incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2. On day 3, single embryo transfer (SET) took place based on kinetic parameters of the embryos. Clinical pregnancy was confirmed 7 weeks after SET. The second case with history of previous ICSI failure was admitted with azoospermia. Nine MII oocytes underwent ICSI, and incubated in Time-lapse facilities. The rest of procedures were followed as described for case 1. Chemical pregnancy was confirmed 15 days after SET.
Conclusion: This approach opens a way to select best embryo non-invasively for SET; thus, increasing implantation, while reducing multiple pregnancy complications.

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