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Mahdieh Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Eslami, Parnian Andalib, Mohammad Esmaaeil Motlaq, Najmeh Jadidi, Nouzar Nakhaee,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (7-2010)

Background: When family planning programmes offer a wide variety of contraceptives, contraceptive prevalence would be higher overall.
Objective: To determine the acceptability of Cyclofem© and to evaluate its side effects and continuation rate in Iran.
Materials and Methods: An introductory study of Cyclofem© was conducted in seven districts of Kerman Province, the largest province of Iran, in three phases. At first, 14394 women attending randomly selected urban and rural health centers representing different socioeconomic classes were invited to choose Cyclofem© after a standard schedule of counselling. At the second phase 418 of those who accepted Cyclofem© and 354 of those who refused to use the method were randomly selected to participate in an interview. At the third phase the first group was followed up for one year at regular one-month intervals.
Results: Nearly 12.6% (n=1809) of 14394 women counselled to choose Cyclofem© accepted the contraceptive method. They had a mean (±SD) age of 28.5 (±6.5) years. Fear of side effects was the most common cause of refusal to use Cyclofem©. The one-year continuation rate was 21.2%. The three main side effects leading to early discontinuation of Cyclofem© were nausea (18%), prolonged menses (15.8%), and amenorrhea (14.7%), respectively. Conclusion: The one-year continuation rate of Cyclofem© use in Iran has been lower than other countries. Further research is necessary to improve continuation rates.
Leila Pourali, Sedigheh Ayati, Shahrzad Jelodar, Ahmadreza Zarifian, Mohammad Sobhan Sheikh Andalibi,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (5-2016)

Introduction: Regarding to the recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART), twin and multiple pregnancies have increased during past years.
Objective: This study was performed to compare obstetrics and perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancy following ART with spontaneous pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was performed in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 107 dichorionic twin pregnancy were enrolled in two groups: spontaneous group (n=96) and ART group (n=31). Basic criteria and obstetrics and neonatal outcomes information including demographic data, gestational age, mode of delivery, pregnancy complications (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), postpartum hemorrhage), neonatal outcomes (weight, first and fifth minute Apgar score, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus) were recorded using a questionnaire.
Results: Preterm labor, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia were significantly higher in ART group compared to spontaneous pregnancy group. However, other factors such as anemia, IUGR, postpartum hemorrhage, and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of neonatal outcomes (weight, 1st and 5th min Apgar score <7, NICU hospitalization, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus).
Conclusion: With regard of significantly higher poor outcomes such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm labor in ART group, the couples should be aware of these potential risks before choosing ART.

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