Volume 3, Issue 2 (7-2005)                   IJRM 2005, 3(2): 83-0 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Dehghan M H, Martin T, Dehghanan R. Antifertility effect of Iranian neem seed alcoholic extract on epididymal sperm of mice. IJRM. 2005; 3 (2) :83-0
URL: http://journals.ssu.ac.ir/ijrmnew/article-1-37-en.html
Abstract:   (1775 Views)
Background: About 90% of the world�s contraceptive users are women. This gender-based usage has occurred due to the emphasis of family planning programs and contraception research. Condom, vasectomy and withdrawal are the only male contraception devices available with less assurance for men. For new male contraceptive to have an impact, they must be acceptable to both men and women, as well as effective. A hormonal method will likely come to the market within the next few years. It is necessary to use biologically active botanical substances or fertility-regulating agents of plant origin which are ecofriendly. Objectives: The epididymis is a site which can be exploited for male contraception without undue side effects. It was therefore of interest to investigate the effect of biologically active botanical ecofriendly plants such as Azadirchta Indica (neem) seed alcoholic extract as an efficient and competent male contraceptive on male mouse epididymis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental case control study sixty adult healthy mice divided into two groups of 40 as the control and 20 as the treated group. The treated group was administered by Iranian Botanical Azadirachta Indica seed alcoholic extract, cultivated at Dashteh Moghan (Ardabil province). The seeds was extracted with ethanol then administered first 50 mg/kg body weight /day then 100 mg/kg body weight/day orally for 15 days, following WHO guide lines (MB-50). The target organ, epididymis parameters viz. sperm motility, sperm count fertility rate, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) morphology of spermatozoa and ATPase activity of epididymis of the two groups were compared. Results: The 50 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day showed no significant change in epididymal sperm motility, as compare to the control. Therefore the dose was changed to 100 mg/kg BW/day for 15 days. The body and organ weights (epididymis) of the treated animals were not significantly changed as compare to control group (p>0.05). The treatment brought about a significant reduction in fertility rate when normal cycling female mice were mated with treated males (p<0.001). Decline in ATPase activity in caput and cauda epididymis was observed (p<0.001). SEM photographs showed spermatozoa with abnormal head and bent mid-piece region. Conclusion: Decrease in ATPase activity could be attributed to androgen dependent parameters. However, the fertility rate was also significantly reduced which can be due to the decrease in cauda epididymal sperm motility and their morphological abnormalities. Since the effect on epididymal sperm motility and morphology was manifested in short period of 15 days, it is evident that the extract has potential as an antifertility agent. As this extract do not cause change in the body and organ weight, it is likely that no effect occurred on electrolyte balance
Full-Text [PDF 98 kb]   (838 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (95 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Article |

References
1. Henshaw SK. Unintended pregnancy in the United States. Fam Plann Perspect 1998; 30:24-29. [DOI:10.2307/2991522] [PMID]
2. Beckman LJ, Harvey SM. Factors affecting the consistent use of barrier methods of contraception. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88(suppl):65S-71S. [DOI:10.1016/0029-7844(96)00245-1]
3. Moore PJ, Adler NE, Kegeles SM. Adolescents and the contraceptive pill: the impact of beliefs on intentions and use.Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88(suppl):48S-56S. [DOI:10.1016/0029-7844(96)00244-X]
4. Potter LS. How effective are contraceptives? The determination and measurement of pregnancy rates. Obstet Gynecol 1996, 88(suppl):13S-23S. [DOI:10.1016/0029-7844(96)00246-3]
5. Dixit VP. Plant products/non-steroidal compounds affecting fertility in the Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurrianae Jerdon. In: Prakash I & Ghosh PK (Editors), Rodents in Indian Agriculture. Vol. 1. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India 1992; 595-604.
6. Roop JK, Dhaliwal PK, and Guraya SS. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats, Braz J Med Biol Res, 2005; 38(06) 943-947 (Short Communication). [DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2005000600017] [PMID]
7. Cooper TG. Epididymis. In: Neill JD, Knobil E, eds. Encyclopedia of reproduction 2. San Diego: Academic Press 1998; 1-17.
8. Orgebin-Crist M-C, Danzo BJ, Davies J. Endocrine control of the development and maintenance of sperm fertilizing ability in the epididymis. In: Hamilton DW, Greep RO, eds. Handbook of physiology. Washington DC: American Physiological Society 1975; 319-338.
9. Kirchhoff C. Molecular aspects of epididymal function and sperm maturation. In: Waites GMH, Frick J, Baker GWH, eds. Current advances in andrology. Bologna, Italy: Monduzzi 1997; 253-259.
10. schumutteror H. The neem tree, VCH puplication 1995; 72-120. [DOI:10.1002/3527603980]
11. Riar SS, Bardhan J. Mechansim of antifertility action of neem oil, Indian J med Res. 1988; 88:339-42.
12. Subir KN, Oria BK, and Raikwar MK. Activity relationship of chemical from neen and Allied species as potential botonical pestiside. Everyman's sciences Vol. xxxvlll No.5. 2004; 4: 266-277.
13. Dhaliwal PK, Roop JK & Guraya SS. Antifertility activity of neem-seed oil in cyclic female rats. In: Dhaliwal GS, Randhawa NS, Arora A & Dhawan AK (Editors), Ecological Agriculture and Sustainable Development. Vol. 2. Indian Ecological Society and Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development, Chandigarh, India 1998; 340-346.
14. Garg S, Talwar GP, Upadhyay SN. Immunocontraceptive activity guidedfractionation and characterization of activeconstituents of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts.J Ethnopharmacol 1998; 60:235-246. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00157-8]
15. Mukherjee S, Lohiya NK, Pal R. Purified neem (Azadirachta indica) seed xtracts (Praneem) abrogate pregnancy in primates. Contraception 1996; 53:375-378. [DOI:10.1016/0010-7824(96)00088-1]
16. Riar S, Devakumar C, Ilavazhagan G. Volatile fraction of neem oil as a spermicide. Contraception 1990;42:479-487. [DOI:10.1016/0010-7824(90)90054-Y]
17. Bardhan J, Riar SS, Sawhney RC. Neem oil-a fertility controlling agent in rhesus monkey. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35:278-280.
18. Upadhyay SN, Dhawan S, Talwar GP. Antifertility effects of neem (Azadirachta ndica) oil in male rats by single intra-vas administration: an alternate approach to vasectomy. J Androl 1993; 14:275-281.
19. WHO: protocol CG-04. Preparation of Alcoholic Extract for Bioassay and Phytochemical Studies (APJF/IP, 1001A). Geneva, World Health Organization 1983a.
20. WHO protocol MB-50. A Method for the Wxamining the Effect of a Plant Extract Administration Orally on the Fertility of Male Rats (APF/IP, 9914E). World HealthOrganization 1983b.
21. Quinn PJ, and White IG. Distribution of Adenosine Triphosphatase activity in ram and bull spermatozoa. J. Reprod. Fertil 1968;15:58-75. [DOI:10.1530/jrf.0.0150449] [PMID]
22. Nation JL. A new method using hexamethyldisilazane for preparation of soft insect tissues for scanning electron microscopy. Stain Technol 1983; 58: 347-351. [DOI:10.3109/10520298309066811] [PMID]
23. SaiRam, M. J. Anti-microbial activity of a new vaginal contraceptive NIM-76 from neem oil (Azadirachta indica). Ethnopharmacol 2000; 71, 377-382. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00211-1]
24. Jensen JT. Male contraceptive. Curr womens Health Rep 2002; 2(5): 338-45.
25. US National Academy of Sciences, publication .'Neem - a tree for solving global problems'.For thousands of years the beneficial properties of Neem. Office of International Affairs 1992; 104-106.
26. Biswas Kausik, Ishita Chattopadhyay, Ranajit K. Banerjee and Uday Bandyopadhyay. Current Science 2002; 82(11), JUNE, 1336-1345.
27. Chinoy NJ, Geeta Rang M. Effects of cartica Papaya seed extract on the Physiology of the Vas deferens of albino rats. Acta Europ Fertilit 1984; 15(1):59-66.
28. Deshpende VY, Mendulkar KN, Sadre NL. Male antifertility activity of Azadirachta indica in mice. J Postgrad Med 1980; 26:167-70.
29. Khan PK, Awasthy KS. Cyctogenetic toxicity of neem. Food chem. Toxicol 2003; 41(10): 1325-1328. [DOI:10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00123-6]
30. Rahman MF, Siddiqui MK, Jamil K. Sub-chronic effect of neem based pesticide (vepacide) on acetylcholinestrase and ATPase in rat. J Environ Sci Health B 1999; 34(5):873-884. [DOI:10.1080/03601239909373232] [PMID]
31. Sharma SK, Sai Ram M. Mechanism of action of NIM-76: a noval Vaginal contraceptive from neem oil. Contraception 1996; 54(6):373-378. [DOI:10.1016/S0010-7824(96)00204-1]

© 2021 All Rights Reserved | International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb